1982 Israel "REDS" Movie FILM POSTER Hebrew BEATTY -NICHOLSON -KEATON -HACKMAN

1982 Israel

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eBay DESCRIPTION :   Here for sale is an EXCEPTIONALY RARE and ORIGINAL over 30 years old POSTER for the ISRAEL 1982 premiere of the acclaimed and awards winning WARREN BEATTY film "REDS" in the small rural town of NATHANYA in ISRAEL.  Starring WARREN BEATTY , DIANE KEATON , JACK NICHOLSON  and GENE HACKMAM to name only a few. The cinema-movie hall " CINEMA SHARON" , A local Israel;i version of "Cinema Paradiso" was printing manualy its own posters , And thus you can be certain that this surviving copy is ONE OF ITS KIND.  Fully DATED 1982 . Text in HEBREW and ENGLISH . Please note : This is NOT a re-release poster but PREMIERE - FIRST RELEASE projection of the film , A year after its release in 1981 in USA and worldwide . The ISRAELI distributors of the film provided the poster with quite archaic and amusing HEBREW text  . The poster also advertises a MATINEE SHOW of AMITABH BACHCHAN and SHASHI KAPOOR in "TRISHUL". GIANT size around 28" x 38"  ( not accurate ) . Printed in red and blue . The condition is good . 2 folds . ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal .SHIPPMENT : SHIPP worldwide via registered airmail is $18.  Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days.MORE DETAILS :   Reds is a 1981 American epic drama film co-written, produced and directed by Warren Beatty. The picture centers on the life and career of John Reed, the journalist and writer who chronicled the Russian Revolution in his book Ten Days That Shook the World. Beatty stars in the lead role alongside Diane Keaton as Louise Bryant and Jack Nicholson as Eugene O'Neill. The supporting cast of the film includes Edward Herrmann, Jerzy Kosinski, Paul Sorvino, Maureen Stapleton, Gene Hackman, Ramon Bieri, Nicolas Coster and M. Emmet Walsh. The film also features, as "witnesses," interviews with the 98-year-old radical educator and peace activist Scott Nearing (1883–1983), author Dorothy Frooks (1896–1997), reporter and author George Seldes (1890–1995), civil liberties advocate Roger Baldwin (1884–1981), and the American writer Henry Miller (1891–1980), among others. Beatty was awarded the Academy Award for Best Director and the film was nominated for Best Picture, but lost to Chariots of Fire. Warren Beatty, Diane Keaton, Jack Nicholson and Maureen Stapleton were nominated for Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actor and Best Supporting Actress, respectively, the last time a film was nominated in all four acting categories until Silver Linings Playbook in 2012. Stapleton was the only one of the four to win, with Beatty and Keaton losing to Henry Fonda and Katharine Hepburn for On Golden Pond and Nicholson to John Gielgud for Arthur. Beatty was also nominated, along with co-writer Trevor Griffiths, for Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, but lost to Chariots of Fire. Warren Beatty became the third person to be nominated for Academy Awards in the categories Best Actor, Director and Original Screenplay for a film nominated for Best Picture. This was done previously by Orson Welles for Citizen Kane and Woody Allen for Annie Hall. In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "Ten Top Ten" – the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres – after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Reds was acknowledged as the ninth best film in the epic genre.[2][3] Contents 1 Plot2 Cast3 Production4 Soundtrack5 Witnesses6 Reception and response7 Awards and honors8 References9 External links Plot The film covers the life of John Reed and Louise Bryant from their first meeting to Reed's final days in 1920 Russia. Interspersed throughout the narrative, several surviving witnesses from the time period give their recollections of Reed, Bryant, their colleagues and friends, and the era itself. A number of them have mixed views of Bryant and her relationship with Reed. In 1915, married socialite Bryant encounters the radical journalist Reed for the first time at a lecture in Portland, Oregon, and she is intrigued with his idealism. Upon meeting him for an interview on international politics which lasts over the course of a night, she realizes that writing has been her only escape from her frustrated high society existence. Inspired to leave her husband, Bryant joins Reed in Greenwich Village, New York City, and becomes acquainted with the local community of activists and artists, including anarchist and author Emma Goldman and the playwright Eugene O'Neill. Later, they move to Provincetown, Massachusetts, to concentrate on their writing, becoming involved in the local theatre scene. Through her writing, Bryant becomes a feminist and radical in her own right. Reed becomes involved in labor strikes with the "Reds" of the Communist Labor Party of America. Obsessed with changing the world, he grows restless and heads for St. Louis to cover the 1916 Democratic Convention. During Reed's absence, Bryant falls into a complicated affair with O'Neill. Upon his return, Reed discovers the truth about the affair and realizes he still loves Bryant. The two marry secretly and make a home together in Croton-on-Hudson, north of New York City, but still have conflicting desires. When Reed admits to his own infidelities, Bryant takes a ship to Europe to work as a war correspondent. After a flare-up of a kidney disorder, Reed is warned to avoid excessive travel or stress, but he decides to take the same path. Reunited as professionals, the two find their passion rekindled as they are swept up in the fall of Russia's Czarist regime and the events of the 1917 Revolution. The second part of the film takes place shortly after the publication of Ten Days that Shook the World. Inspired by the idealism of the Revolution, Reed attempts to bring the spirit of Communism to the United States, because he is disillusioned with the policies imposed upon Communist Russia by Grigory Zinoviev and the Bolsheviks. While attempting to leave Europe, he is briefly imprisoned and interrogated in Finland. He returns to Russia and is reunited with Bryant at the railway station in Moscow. By this point, Reed is growing progressively weaker as a result of his kidney disorder. Bryant helps nurse the ailing Reed, who eventually dies. Cast Warren Beatty as John Silas "Jack" ReedDiane Keaton as Louise BryantEdward Herrmann as Max EastmanJerzy Kosinski as Grigory ZinovievJack Nicholson as Eugene O'NeillPaul Sorvino as Louis C. FrainaMaureen Stapleton as Emma GoldmanNicolas Coster as Paul TrullingerWilliam Daniels as Julius GerberM. Emmet Walsh as Speaker – Liberal ClubIan Wolfe as Mr. PartlowBessie Love as Mrs. PartlowMacIntyre Dixon as Carl WaltersPat Starr as Helen WaltersEleanor D. Wilson as Margaret Green Reed (mother)Max Wright as Floyd DellGeorge Plimpton as Horace WhighamHarry Ditson as Maurice BeckerLeigh Curran as Ida RauhKathryn Grody as Crystal EastmanDolph Sweet as Big Bill HaywoodGene Hackman as Pete Van WherryNancy Duiguid as Jane HeapDave King as Allan L. BensonRoger Sloman as Vladimir LeninStuart Richman as Leon TrotskyOleg Kerensky as Alexander KerenskyJohn J. Hooker as Senator OvermanJan Triska as Karl Radek Production Warren Beatty came across the story of John Reed in the mid-1960s and executive producer and film editor Dede Allen remembers Beatty mentioning making a film about Reed's life as early as 1966. Originally titled Comrades, the first script was written by Beatty in 1969,[4] but the process stalled. In 1976, Beatty found a suitable collaborator in Trevor Griffiths who began work but was delayed when his wife died in a plane crash.[5] The preliminary draft of the script was finished in 1978, but Beatty still had problems with it. Beatty and Griffiths spent four and a half months on fixing it, though Beatty's friend Elaine May would also collaborate on polishing the script. Beatty originally had no intention of acting in the film or even directing it, because he had learned on various projects such as Bonnie and Clyde and Heaven Can Wait that producing a film alone is a difficult task. He briefly considered John Lithgow for the part of John Reed because the two looked similar in appearance. Eventually, however, Beatty decided to act in the film and direct it himself. Jack Nicholson was cast as Eugene O'Neill over James Taylor and Sam Shepard.[5] When principal photography began in August 1979 the original intention was for a 15-to-16-week filming shoot, but it ultimately took one whole year to just shoot the film. The process was slow because it was shot in five different countries and at various points the crew had to wait for snow to fall in Helsinki (and other parts of Finland), which stood in for the Soviet Union, and for rain to abstain in Spain. Beatty would also not stop the camera between takes and would have it continuously roll. He also insisted on a large number of takes. Paul Sorvino said he did as many as 70 takes for one scene and actress Maureen Stapleton had to do 80 takes of one particular scene which caused her to say to Beatty, "Are you out of your fucking mind?"[5] Beatty and Keaton's romantic relationship also began to deteriorate during the filming. Peter Biskind wrote about the making of Reds, "Beatty's relationship with Keaton barely survived the shoot. It is always a dicey proposition when an actress works with a star or director – both, in this case – with whom she has an offscreen relationship. ... Keaton appeared in more scenes than any other actor, save Beatty, and many of them were difficult ones, where she had to assay a wide range of feelings, from romantic passion to anger, and deliver several lengthy, complex, emotional speeches." George Plimpton once observed, "Diane almost got broken. I thought [Beatty] was trying to break her into what Louise Bryant had been like with John Reed." Executive producer Simon Relph adds, "It must have been a strain on their relationship, because he was completely obsessive, relentless."[5] The editing process began in spring of 1980 with as many as 65 people working on editing down and going over approximately two and a half million feet of film.[5] Post-production ended in November 1981 more than two years after the start of filming. Paramount stated that the final cost of the film was $33.5 million, which would be the rough equivalent of around $80 million today.[5] Soundtrack The film introduced the song "Goodbye for Now," written by Stephen Sondheim. The song was later recorded by Barbra Streisand for The Movie Album (2003). Witnesses "The most evocative aspect of the presentation is a documentary enhancement – interviews with a number of venerable 'witnesses,' whose recollections of the period help to set the scene, bridge transitions and preserve a touching human perspective," wrote The Washington Post.[6] "More than anything else in Reds, these interviews give the film its poignant point of view and separate it from all other romantic adventure films ever made," wrote New York Times film critic Vincent Canby.[7] To gain perspective on the lives of Reed and Bryant, Beatty began filming the "witnesses" as early as 1971.[8] Some of them are very well known, others less so. As well as their being listed in the opening credits, American Film magazine identified the witnesses in its March 1982 issue.[9] Jacob Bailin, labor organizerRoger Nash Baldwin, founder, American Civil Liberties UnionJohn Ballato, early socialistHarry Carlisle, writer, teacherKenneth Chamberlain, political cartoonist for the MassesAndrew Dasburg, painterTess Davis, cousin of Louise Bryant's first husbandWill Durant, historianBlanche Hays Fagen, with Provincetown PlayersHamilton Fish, Congressman, Harvard classmate of John ReedDorothy Frooks, "Recruiting girl," World War IHugo Gellert, artist for the MassesEmmanuel Herbert, student in Petrograd, 1917–18George Jessel, entertainerOleg Kerensky, son of Alexander KerenskyIsaac Don Levine, journalist, translator for ReedArthur Mayer, film historian, Harvard classmate of Reed also film distributorHenry Miller, novelistAdele Nathan, with Provincetown PlayersScott Nearing, sociologist, pacifistDora Russell, delegate to CominternAdela Rogers St. Johns, journalistGeorge Seldes, U.S. journalist in MoscowArt Shields, political activistJessica Smith, political activistArne Swabeck, member, Communist Labor PartyBernadine Szold-Fritz, journalistGalina von Meck, witness to Russian RevolutionHeaton Vorse, son of a Provincetown playwrightWill Weinstone,organizer, U.S. Communist PartyRebecca West, feminist, authorLucita Williams, wife of a Lenin biographer Reception and response Released on December 4, 1981, Reds opened to critical acclaim upon its release. Despite its political subject matter and limited promotion by Warren Beatty, the film became the thirteenth highest grossing picture of 1981, grossing $50,000,000 in the United States.[1] Beatty later remarked that the film "made a little money" in box office returns. The movie currently holds a high 94% "Fresh" rating on the review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes.[10] In an interview with IMDb regarding his recently released film Interstellar (2014), director Christopher Nolan stated that Reds strongly influenced some of its scenes.[11] Awards and honors The film won Academy Awards for the following:[12][13] Best Actress in a Supporting Role (Maureen Stapleton playing Emma Goldman)Best Cinematography (Vittorio Storaro)Best Director (Warren Beatty) The film received the following nominations:[12] Best Actor in a Leading Role (Warren Beatty)Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Jack Nicholson)Best Actress in a Leading Role (Diane Keaton)Best Art Direction-Set Decoration (Richard Sylbert, Michael Seirton)Best Costume Design (Shirley Ann Russell)Best Film Editing (Dede Allen , Craig McKay) Best PictureBest Sound (Dick Vorisek, Tom Fleischman and Simon Kaye)Best Writing, Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen · The original John Reed was a dashing young man from Portland who knew a good story when he found one, and, when he found himself in the midst of the Bolshevik revolution, wrote a book called "Ten Days That Shook the World" and made himself a famous journalist. He never quite got it right again after that. He became embroiled in the American left-wing politics of the 1920s, participated in fights between factions of the Socialist Party and the new American Communist Party, and finally returned to Moscow on a series of noble fool's errands that led up, one way or another, to his death from tuberculosis and kidney failure in a Russian hospital. He is the only American buried within the Kremlin walls. · · · That is Reed's story in a nutshell. But if you look a little more deeply you find a man who was more than a political creature. He was also a man who wanted to be where the action was, a radical young intellectual who was in the middle of everything in the years after World War I, when Greenwich Village was in a creative ferment and American society seemed, for a brief moment, to be overturning itself. It is that personal, human John Reed that Warren Beatty's "Reds" takes as its subject, although there is a lot, and maybe too much, of the political John Reed as well. The movie never succeeds in convincing us that the feuds between the American socialist parties were much more than personality conflicts and ego-bruisings, so audiences can hardly be expected to care which faction is "the" American party of the left. · What audiences can, and possibly will, care about, however, is a traditional Hollywood romantic epic, a love story written on the canvas of history, as they used to say in the ads. And "Reds" provides that with glorious romanticism, surprising intelligence, and a consistent wit. It is the thinking man's "Doctor Zhivago," told from the other side, of course. The love story stars Warren Beatty and Diane Keaton, who might seem just a tad unlikely as casting choices, but who are immediately engaging and then grow into solid, plausible people on the screen. Keaton is a particular surprise. I had somehow gotten into the habit of expecting her to be a touchy New Yorker, sweet, scared, and intellectual. Here, as a Portland dentist's wife who runs away with John Reed and eventually follows him halfway around the world, through blizzards and prisons and across icy steppes, she is just what she needs to be: plucky, healthy, exasperated, loyal, and funny. · Beatty, as John Reed, is also surprising. I expected him to play Reed as a serious, noble, heroic man for all seasons, and so he does, sometimes. But there is in Warren Beatty's screen persona a persistent irony, a way of kidding his own seriousness, that takes the edge off a potentially pretentious character and makes him into one of God's fools. Beatty plays Reed but does not beatify him: He permits the silliness and boyishness to coexist with the self-conscious historical mission. · The action in the movie takes Reed to Russia and back again to Portland, and off again with Louise Bryant (Keaton), and then there is a lengthy pause in Greenwich Village and time enough for Louise to have a sad little love affair with the morosely alcoholic playwright Eugene O'Neill (Jack Nicholson). Then there are other missions to Moscow, and heated political debates in New York basements, and at one point I'm afraid I entirely lost track of exactly why Reed was running behind a horsecart in the middle of some forgotten battle in an obscure backwater of the Russian empire. The fact is, Reed's motivation from moment to moment is not the point of the picture. The point is that a revolution is happening, human societies are being swept aside, a new class is in control -- or so it seems -- and for an insatiably curious young man, that is exhilarating, and it is enough. · The heart of the film is in the relationship between Reed and Bryant. There is an interesting attempt to consider her problems as well as his. She leaves Portland because she is sick unto death of small talk. She wants to get involved in politics, in art, in what's happening: She is so inexorably drawn to Greenwich Village that if Reed had not taken her there, she might have gone on her own. If she was a radical in Portland, however, she is an Oregonian in the Village, and she cannot compete conversationally with such experienced fast-talkers as the anarchist Emma Goldman (Maureen Stapleton). In fact, no one seems to listen to her or pay much heed, except for sad Eugene O'Neill, who is brave enough to love her but not smart enough to keep it to himself. The ways in which she edges toward O'Neill, and then loyally returns to Reed, create an emotional density around her character that makes it really mean something when she and Reed embrace at last in a wonderful tear-jerking scene in the Russian train station. · The whole movie finally comes down to the fact that the characters matter to us. Beatty may be fascinated by the ins and outs of American left-wing politics sixty years ago, but he is not so idealistic as to believe an American mass audience can be inspired to care as deeply. So he gives us people. And they are seen here with such warmth and affection that we sense new dimensions not only in Beatty and Keaton, but especially in Nicholson. In "Reds," understating his desire, apologizing for his passion, hanging around Louise, handing her a poem, throwing her out of his life, he is quieter but much more passionate than in the overwrought "The Postman Always Rings Twice." · As for Beatty, "Reds" is his bravura turn. He got the idea, nurtured it for a decade, found the financing, wrote most of the script, produced, and directed and starred and still found enough artistic detachment to make his Reed into a flawed, fascinating enigma instead of a boring archetypal hero. I liked this movie. I felt a real fondness for it. It was quite a subject to spring on the capitalist Hollywood movie system, and maybe only Beatty could have raised $35 million to make a movie about a man who hated millionaires. I noticed, here at the end of the credits, a wonderful line that reads: Copyright copy MCMLXXXI Barclays Mercantile Industrial Finance Limited. · John Reed would have loved that. · Director: Warren Beatty Entertainment grade: A– History grade: A– · John Reed was an American journalist who witnessed the October revolution in Russia in 1917. · Sex · · Paramount Pictures · Earnest leftie Jack Reed (Warren Beatty) meets earnest leftie Louise Bryant (Diane Keaton) in Portland, Oregon, late in 1915. He impresses her with his thoughts on the profit motive in the first world war, somewhat anticipating Lenin's Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism, written a few months later. This was exactly the way to an earnest leftie's heart in the 1910s, and if only Reed had said something more specific about dialectical materialism it would probably have been pants off straight away. As it is, that takes them until the second date. "I'd like to see you with your pants off, Mr Reed," says Bryant. Aha, there we go. · People · · Paramount Pictures · Reed persuades Bryant to follow him to New York, where they meet the film's two most shameless scene-stealers. First, there's Maureen Stapleton, doing a wickedly enjoyable turn as no-nonsense anarchist Emma Goldman. "What do you write about?" Goldman asks Bryant. "Oh, everything," she replies nervously. "You write about everything?" Goldman snaps. "Everything, yes," stammers Bryant. "Everything … nothing, huh. Just…" Goldman gives her a look that could flay the hide off a rhinoceros. Second, there's Jack Nicholson as bilious playwright and future Nobel laureate Eugene O'Neill. Actually, he's more or less just playing Jack Nicholson, but he is awfully good at that – and the quick-witted screenplay gives him plenty of brutal O'Neillish lines to snarl. · Romance · · PR · Bryant is fleetingly seduced by O'Neill. In real life, she was not quite so ingenuous. In fact, it was she who seduced O'Neill, telling him untruthfully that Reed was seriously ill and they were no longer in a sexual relationship. Reportedly it is true, as portrayed here, that O'Neill fell hopelessly in love with her. That would be easier to believe if Reds allowed her more of the confidence and audacity she had in real life. · Politics · · Paramount Pictures · After the action-packed first half, ending on the high of the October revolution, it's a slight disappointment that the film's second half begins with the internecine struggle between the American Socialist Party, the Communist Labor Party and the Communist Party of America. If you've seen Monty Python's Life of Brian, this is a lot like the schism between the People's Front of Judea and the Judean People's Front, only with no one hawking a tray of otters' noses. · Ideology · · Paramount Pictures · The action picks up again as Reed returns to the Soviet Union. Emma Goldman is already there, and disillusioned with the Soviet project. That's convenient for the screenwriters, but it's also true. "The situation is such that we are now going through the deepest spiritual conflict in our lives," she wrote to a friend at the time. Nor does Reed arrive in the glorious socialist paradise he expected. Instead, he finds food and fuel shortages, and the head of the Comintern, Grigory Zinoviev (Jerzy Kosinski), imperturbably eating a lemon. Zinoviev effectively kidnaps Reed and puts him to propaganda work. This, too, is accurate, as is the film's depiction of his doomed attempt to escape. · Love · · PR · Bryant sets out on an odyssey from the US to the USSR to find her husband. The audience's sympathies for Reed are undiminished by the fact that he had an affair with a Russian woman, because the film tactfully leaves that out. Furthermore, the tension has been ramped up by its claim that communication between Reed and Bryant was impossible, whereas in real life they did correspond and he knew she was coming. Still, though Reds fiddles with the details, the political and emotional situations portrayed have been impressively well researched. Without spoiling the end, it too is correct – well, almost. · Verdict · An engrossing, beautifully filmed and remarkably balanced portrait of a fascinating moment in history, cleverly enhanced by the intercutting of real-life documentary interviews. Reds is everything a historian could want in a movie. Reds (1981) BEATTY'S 'REDS,' WITH DIANE KEATON By VINCENT CANBY Published: December 4, 1981 THE Scott Joplin ragtime tune behind the opening credits of Warren Beatty's ''Reds'' recalls the sounds of pre-World War I America as they were heard then, when Greenwich Village was still a new Bohemia, free love was a way of life for the adventurous, new ideas were shaping the arts, and radical politics were more a matter of theory than practice. As the ragtime music fades out, voices fade in, contemporary voices that form a bridge to the past. ''Was that in 1917 or 1913?'' asks one. ''I'm beginning to forget.'' ''You know,'' another voice acknowledges, ''things go and come back.'' ''Were they Socialists?'' One by one the faces that belong to these voices appear on the screen, seen in close-up against a luminously black void. Some are familiar - Rebecca West's, Henry Miller's, Adela Rogers St. Johns's - and all are very old (some have died since the interviews were filmed). Some are lined with the cobwebs of long life. Other faces, like Miller's, are as wrinkle-free as stretched parchment. Each in some way remembers that earlier time, if only, like George Jessel, who wears his U.S.O. uniform, to become confused. Jessel cannot remember whether the great anarchist and anti-World War I activist was named Emma Goldberg or Emma Goldman. These are the Witnesses - there are more than two dozen of them - who make up a kind of Greek chorus, the members of which appear from time to time throughout ''Reds'' to set the film in historical perspective, as much by what they remember accurately as by their gossip and by what they no longer recall. It's an extraordinary device, but ''Reds'' is an extraordinary film, a big romantic adventure movie, the best since David Lean's ''Lawrence of Arabia,'' as well as a commercial movie with a rare sense of history. The focal point of ''Reds,'' which Mr. Beatty produced, wrote (with Trevor Griffths), directed and acts in, is the love affair and marriage of John Reed, the flamboyant American journalist and radical sympathizer, and Louise Bryant, the Portland, Ore., dentist's wife who, in 1915, fled from her husband and middle-class conventions to follow Reed to Greenwich Village and her own desperately longed-for emancipation. The film, which begins with a montage of Reed's exploits while covering Pancho Villa in Mexico in 1913, moves from Portland to Greenwich Village; to Provincetown, Mass., where Reed and Louise helped form the famous Provincetown Players with Eugene O'Neill and others; to France, before United States entry into the war, and finally to Russia, where Reed and Louise were covering the successful Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Theirs is the kind of story that only a third-rate novelist would dare make up. Though very long - more than three hours plus intermission - and broad in physical scale, ''Reds'' has at its center two remarkable characters -Reed, the perennial undergraduate who used wars and revolutions as his personal raw material, but whose commitment to social and political change led him to risk everything on behalf of the world Communist movement, and Louise Bryant, an incurable romantic who, in the course of her association with Reed, became her own tragic heroine. Mr. Beatty is fine as Reed, full of youthful enthusiasm, arrogance and the dedication of a convert, but Diane Keaton is nothing less than splendid as Louise Bryant - beautiful, selfish, funny and driven. It's the best work she has done to date. Most prominent in the supporting cast are Jack Nicholson as the young O'Neill, with whom Louise had an affair at the same time she was living with Reed; Maureen Stapleton, marvelous and earthy as Emma Goldman; Jerzy Kosinski, the novelist, who is very, very good as Grigory Zinoviev, the smarmy Bolshevik who may have helped push Reed to a disillusion with Communism never fully verified, and Edward Herrmann, as Reed's friend and editor, Max Eastman. Most astonishing is the way the movie, which abounds with Great Moments of History, including the Bolshevik takeover of the Winter Palace in Petrograd, avoids the patently absurd, even as Reed and Louise, drunk on the excitement of the successful revolution they've just witnessed, make love in a cold Petrograd flat to the strains of ''The Internationale.'' The secret, I think, is that the film sees Reed and Louise as history's golden children, crass and self-obsessed but genuinely committed to causes they don't yet fully understand. There are times when the movie falters - a reconciliation between Louise and Reed on a French battlefield, which never happened and seems drawn from an old Hollywood picture; a terrible decision by Mr. Beatty to cut to a close-up of a cute, sympathetic puppy when Reed is distraught and crying after one of Louise's periodic departures, and a long montage depicting the ''Doctor Zhivago''-like hardships of Louise's second journey to Russia to join Reed in 1920, the year of his death. These, however, are minor faults in a large, remarkably rich, romantic film that dramatizes - in a way that no other commercial movie in my memory has ever done - the excitement of being young, idealistic and foolish in a time when everything still seemed possible. The film's scenes of epic events (actually photographed in Finland and Spain) are stunning, but so are the more intimate moments, including a stuffy Portland dinner party where Reed and Louise are formally introduced; the Greenwich Village sequences in which Reed and Louise enjoy their newly found, mutual love, and a hilarious sequence in Provincetown in which Louise, not a born actress, plays the lead in the early O'Neill play called ''Thirst.'' Says O'Neill to Louise: ''I wish you wouldn't smoke during rehearsals. You don't act as if you're looking for your soul but for an ashtray.'' Students of history may argue over some of the film's ellipses, and film students may delight in pointing out cinema ''quotes,'' shots that recall scenes from other movies, but they will be missing the point of a film of great emotional impact. The technical credits are superior, including Vittorio Storaro's photography and the mindboggling editing job done by a crew headed by Dede Allen and Craig McKay. Only the very narrow-minded will see the film as Communist propaganda. Though Reed remained at his death a card-carrying Communist and was buried in the Kremlin, the movie is essentially as ideological as the puppy that whimpers when Louise stalks out. ''Reds'' is not about Communism, but about a particular era, and a particularly moving kind of American optimism that had its roots in the 19th century. The film, which opens today at the Astor Plaza and Coronet, sees this time as if through the wrong end of a telescope, the image being startlingly clear and distant and, finally, very sad. This mood is most effectively evoked in the testimony of the Witnesses, by one woman who recalls how Louise badgered her for a fur coat, by Rebecca West's talk of old lovers, by Henry Miller's suggestion that someone like Reed, who was so concerned with the world's problems, ''either had no problems of his own or refused to recognize them.'' Then there's the incredibly beautiful moment when the Witness Heaton Vorse, who looks as ancient as the sands of Cape Cod, jauntily sings the old song ''I Don't Want to Play in Your Yard,'' to cue in a Provincetown revel in which the youthful, incredibly beautiful Louise, surrounded by friends and lovers, sings the same song, which suddenly becomes a lament. ''Reds'' is an extremely fine film. ''Reds,'' which has been rated PG (''Parental Guidance Suggested''), contains some vulgar language and some none-tooexplicit sex. Moving Optimism REDS, directed by Warren Beatty; written by Mr. Beatty and Trevor Griffiths; photography by Vittorio Storaro; edited by Dede Allen and Craig McKay; music by Stephen Sondheim and Dave Grusin; produced by Mr. Beatty; released by Paramount Pictures. At the Astor Plaza, Broadway and West 44th Street, and the Coronet, Third Avenue and 59th Street. Running time: 196 minutes. This film is rated PG. John Reed . . . . . Warren Beatty Louise Bryant . . . . . Diane Keaton Max Eastman . . . . . Edward Herrmann Grigory Zinoviev . . . . . Jerzy Kosinski Eugene O'Neill . . . . . Jack Nicholson Louis Fraina . . . . . Paul Sorvino Emma Goldman . . . . . Maureen Stapleton Paul Trullinger . . . . . Nicholas Coster Speaker, Liberal Club . . . . . M. Emmet Walsh Mr. Partlow . . . . . Ian Wolfe Mrs. Partlow . . . . . Bessie Love Carl Walters . . . . . MacIntyre Dixon Helen Walters . . . . . Pat Starr Mrs. Reed . . . . . Eleanor D. Wilson Floyd Dell . . . . . Max Wright Horace Whigham . . . . . George Plimpton Maurice Becker . . . . . Harry Ditson Ida Rauh . . . . . Leigh Curran Crystal Eastman . . . . . Kathryn Grody Marjorie Jones . . . . . Brenda Currin Jane Heap . . . . . Nancy Duiguid Barney . . . . . Norman Chancer Big Bill Haywood . . . . . Dolph Sweet Pete Van Wherry . . . . . Gene Hackman Dr. Lorber . . . . . Gerald Hiken Julius Gerber . . . . . William Daniels Allan Benson . . . . . Dave King Joe Volski . . . . . Joseph Buloff Alex Gomberg . . . . . Stefan Gryff Interpreter in Factory . . . . . Denis Pekarev Lenin . . . . . Roger Sloman Trotsky . . . . . Stuart Richman Kerensky . . . . . Oleg Kerensky WITNESSES: Roger Baldwin, Henry Miller, Adela Rogers St. John, Dora Russell, Scott Nearing, Tess Davis, Heaton Vorse, Hamilton Fish, Isaac Don Levine, Rebecca West, Will Durant, Will Weinstone, Oleg Kerensky, Emmanuel Her- bert, Arne Swabeck, Adele Nathan,George Seldes, Kenneth Chamberlain, Blanche Hays Fagen, Galina von Meck, Art Shields, Andrew Dasburg, Hugo Gellert, Dorothy Frooks, George Jessel, Jacob Bailin, John Ballato, Lucita W illiams, Bernadine Szold-Fritz, Jessica Smith, Harry Carlisle and Arthur Mayer. Henry Warren Beaty (/ˈbeɪti/ BAY-tee[1]) (born March 30, 1937) is an American actor, producer, screenwriter and director. He has been nominated for fourteen Academy Awards – four for Best Actor, four for Best Picture, two for Best Director, three for Original Screenplay, and one for Adapted Screenplay – winning Best Director for Reds (1981). Beatty is only the second person to have been nominated for acting, directing, writing and producing in the same film – doing so first with Heaven Can Wait (1978), and again with Reds – succeeding Orson Welles, who was nominated for all four for Citizen Kane in 1941 and won for writing. In 1999, he was awarded the Academy's highest honor, the Irving G. Thalberg Award. Beatty has been nominated for eighteen Golden Globe Awards, winning six, including the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, which he was honored with in 2007. Among his Golden Globe-nominated films are Splendor in the Grass (1961), Bonnie and Clyde (1967), Shampoo (1975), Dick Tracy (1990), Bugsy (1991), and Bulworth (1998). Contents 1 Early life 1.1 Education1.2 Military service2 Career 2.1 1950s and 1960s2.2 1970s and 1980s2.3 1990s and 2000s2.4 2010s2.5 Tribune lawsuit2.6 Unrealized projects3 Political work4 Honors5 Personal life6 Filmography7 References8 Further reading9 External links Early life Henry Warren Beaty was born in Richmond, Virginia. His mother, Kathlyn Corinne (née MacLean), was a Nova Scotia-born teacher, and his father, Ira Owens Beaty, had a PhD in educational psychology, was a public school administrator, and dealt in real estate.[2] Beatty's grandparents were also educators. The family was Baptist.[3][4] In 1945, the family moved from Richmond to Arlington, Virginia. During the 1950s, the family resided in the Dominion Hills section of Arlington.[5] Beatty's elder sister is the actress/dancer/writer Shirley MacLaine. He is not related to Ned Beatty (who was also born in 1937). Education Beatty was a star football player at Washington-Lee High School in Arlington. Encouraged to act by the success of his sister, who had recently established herself as a Hollywood star, he decided to work as a stagehand at the National Theatre in Washington, D.C. during the summer before his senior year. He was reportedly offered ten football scholarships to college, but rejected them to study liberal arts at Northwestern University (1954–1955), where he joined the Sigma Chi Fraternity. After his first year, he left college to move to New York City, where he studied acting with Stella Adler. Military service Warren Beatty enlisted in the California Air National Guard on February 11, 1960 under his original name, Henry W. Beaty. On January 1, 1961, Beatty was discharged from the Air National Guard due to physical disability. He was simultaneously discharged from the United States Air Force Reserve (USAF), and served on inactive duty only.[citation needed] Career 1950s and 1960s Beatty in Bonnie and Clyde (1967). Beatty started his career making appearances on television shows such as Studio One (1957), Kraft Television Theatre (1957), and Playhouse 90 (1959). He was a semi-regular on The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis during its first season (1959–60). His performance in William Inge's A Loss of Roses on Broadway in 1960 garnered him a Tony Award nomination for Best Actor and a 1960 Theatre World Award. It was his sole appearance on Broadway.[citation needed] He made his film debut in Elia Kazan's Splendor in the Grass (1961), opposite Natalie Wood. The film was a critical and box office success and Beatty was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor, and received the award for New Star of the Year – Actor.[6] He followed his initial film with Tennessee Williams' The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone (1961), with Vivien Leigh and Lotte Lenya, directed by Jose Quintero; All Fall Down (1962), with Angela Lansbury, Karl Malden and Eva Marie Saint, directed by John Frankenheimer; Lilith (1963), with Jean Seberg and Peter Fonda, directed by Robert Rossen; Promise Her Anything (1964), with Leslie Caron, Bob Cummings and Keenan Wynn, directed by Arthur Hiller; Mickey One (1965), with Alexandra Stewart and Hurd Hatfield, directed by Arthur Penn; and Kaleidoscope (1966), with Susannah York and Clive Revill, directed by Jack Smight. In 1967, when he was 29 years old, he produced and acted in Bonnie and Clyde. He assembled a team that included the writers Robert Benton and David Newman and the director Arthur Penn, chose Faye Dunaway, Gene Hackman and Estelle Parsons for lead roles, oversaw the script and spearheaded the delivery of the film. It was a critical and commercial success, and was nominated for ten Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Actor, and seven Golden Globe Awards, including Best Picture and Best Actor.[citation needed] 1970s and 1980s Beatty with Diane Keaton and first lady Nancy Reagan in 1981. After Bonnie and Clyde, Beatty acted with Elizabeth Taylor in The Only Game in Town (1970), directed by George Stevens; McCabe & Mrs. Miller (1971), directed by Robert Altman; Dollars (1971), directed by Richard Brooks; The Parallax View (1974), directed by Alan Pakula; and The Fortune (1975), directed by Mike Nichols. Beatty produced, co-wrote and acted in Shampoo (1975), directed by Hal Ashby, which was nominated for four Academy Awards, including Best Original Screenplay, as well as five Golden Globe Awards, including Best Motion Picture and Best Actor. In 1978, Beatty directed, produced, wrote and acted in Heaven Can Wait (1978). The film was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Director, Actor, and Adapted Screenplay. It also won three Golden Globe Awards, including Best Motion Picture and Best Actor. Beatty's next film was Reds (1981), an historical epic about American Communist journalist John Reed who observed the Russian October Revolution – a project Beatty had begun researching and filming for as far back as 1970. It was a critical and commercial success, despite being an American film about an American Communist made and released at the height of the Cold War. It received twelve Academy Award nominations – including four for Beatty (for Best Picture, Director, Actor, and Original Screenplay), winning three; Beatty won for Best Director, Maureen Stapleton won for Best Supporting Actress (playing anarchist Emma Goldman), and Vittorio Storaro won for Best Cinematography. The film received seven Golden Globe nominations, including Best Motion Picture, Director, Actor and Screenplay. Beatty won the Golden Globe Award for Best Director. Following Reds, Beatty did not appear in a film for five years until 1987's Ishtar, written and directed by Elaine May. Following severe criticism in press reviews by the new British studio chief David Puttnam just prior to its release, the film received mixed reviews and was commercially unsuccessful. Puttnam attacked several other over-budget U.S. films greenlit by his predecessor, and was fired shortly thereafter.[citation needed] 1990s and 2000s Beatty on the set of Dick Tracy (1990). In 1990, Beatty produced, directed and played the title role as comic strip based detective Dick Tracy in the film of the same name. The film received critical acclaim and was one of the highest grossing of the year. It received seven Academy Award nominations, winning three for Best Art Direction, Best Makeup, and Best Original Song; it also received four Golden Globe Award nominations, including Best Motion Picture. In 1991, he produced and starred as the real-life gangster Bugsy Siegel in the critically and commercially acclaimed Bugsy, directed by Barry Levinson, which was nominated for ten Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Actor; it later won two of the awards for Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design. The film also received eight Golden Globe Award nominations, including Best Motion Picture and Best Actor, winning for Best Motion Picture. Beatty's next film, Love Affair (1994), directed by Glenn Caron, received mixed reviews and was unimpressive commercially. In 1998, he wrote, produced, directed and starred in the political satire Bulworth, which was critically acclaimed and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. The film also received three Golden Globe Award nominations, for Best Motion Picture, Actor, and Screenplay.[citation needed] Beatty has appeared briefly in numerous documentaries, including: Arthur Penn, 1922–: Themes and Variants (1970), Year of the Woman (1973), George Stevens: A Filmmaker's Journey (1984), Dick Tracy: Behind the Badge, Behind the Scenes (1990), Madonna: Truth or Dare (1991), Bugsy: The Dark Passion of an American Dreamer (1991), Victory & Valor: Special Olympics World Games (1991), Writing With Light: Vittorio Storaro (1992), The First 100 Years: A Celebration of American Movies (1995), Forever Hollywood (1999), Dean Tavoularis: The Magician of Hollywood (2003), One Bright Shining Moment (2005), The Road to Damascus: The Reinvention of Bugsy Siegel (2006), In Search of Puppy Love (2007), American Masters (2008), and Revolution! The Making of Bonnie and Clyde (2008). 2010s In 2010, Beatty directed and reprised his role as Dick Tracy in a 30-minute film titled Dick Tracy Special, which premiered on TCM. The short metafiction film stars comic strip hero, Dick Tracy (played by Beatty) and film critic and historian Leonard Maltin who talks about the history and creation of Tracy. Maltin also interviews Dick Tracy. Tracy talks about how he admired Ralph Byrd and Morgan Conway who portrayed him in several films, but how he didn't care much for Beatty's portrayal of him nor his film. In June 2011, it was reported that Beatty was developing a film based on Howard Hughes. The story of Hughes was a dream project Beatty planned to make since the 1970s. Beatty identified himself with Hughes and unlike many roles he played, he was reported saying that he thought he was the appropriate actor to play Hughes (as well as playing Bugsy Siegel, a role he eventually played in Bugsy). In the mid-1970s, Beatty signed a contract with Warner Bros. to star, produce, write and possibly direct a film about Hughes. It was also during this period that Beatty approached Paul Schrader to write a script on Hughes' life, which he declined. However, the project was put on hold when Beatty began Heaven Can Wait. Initially, Beatty planned to film the life story of John Reed and Hughes back-to-back, but as he was getting deeper into the project, he eventually focused primarily only on the John Reed film Reds. In the mid-1980s, Beatty postponed the Hughes film to film Ishtar with Hoffman, Adjani and May. After finishing the Dick Tracy draft in the late 1980s, Beatty pursued Bo Goldman (who wrote a Howard Hughes-themed script Melvin and Howard which also earned him an Academy Award) to write a Hughes script for Warners by the end of 1990. It was during this collaboration with Goldman that Beatty decided to make a film about the later life of Hughes, which Beatty found more fascinating. Although many speculated[who?] that Beatty never had a script about Hughes, it was reported that Goldman did hand Beatty the script on Hughes in the summer of 1989 and he was pleased with the script, but Beatty went on to other projects. However, in the early 1990s, Beatty got word that Steven Spielberg approached Goldman to write him another script on Howard Hughes for Spielberg to direct, in which Spielberg wanted Jack Nicholson to play the billionaire aviator. Beatty convinced Nicholson to turn down the part and Spielberg eventually moved on to other projects. Although Beatty continued to work on the Hughes script himself in 1995, Beatty moved on to Bulworth, shelving his Hughes project once again. However, after years of being away from the screen and the camera, it was reported that Beatty is producing, writing, directing and starring in a film about Hughes and an affair he had with a younger woman in the final years of his life. The project also includes an ensemble cast. During this period, Beatty approached Andrew Garfield, Alec Baldwin, Owen Wilson, Justin Timberlake, Shia La Beouf, Jack Nicholson, Evan Rachel Wood, Rooney Mara, his wife Annette Bening and his personal choice of the female lead, Felicity Jones, to join the cast. After Paramount Pictures exited the film, Regency Enterprises picked up the film in September 2011. The film, Untitled Warren Beatty project, began principal photography on February 24, 2014 and wrapped on June 8, 2014. Some have said that Beatty's film is 40 years in the making. Tribune lawsuit In May 2005, Beatty sued Tribune Co., claiming he still maintained the rights to Dick Tracy. On March 25, 2011, U.S. District Judge Dean Pregerson ruled in Beatty's favor.[7] Unrealized projects Throughout his career, Warren Beatty had several projects that he wanted to produce, to star and to possibly direct. In 1963, producer Charlie Feldman approached Beatty to star and to co-produce a screwball comedy based on a Hungarian play called Lot's Wife, which was penned by Billy Wilder's writing partner, I.A.L. Diamond (Feldman had prior knowledge of Beatty's ambition of becoming a film producer). Beatty agreed to participate in the project and Lot's Wife evolved into What's New Pussycat?. The title comes from Beatty, who would answer the phone to female callers with "What's New Pussycat?" It was intended that Beatty would play the film's hero, a notorious lovesick womanizer and for then-little known writer Woody Allen to play the film's secondary role (which would have been his film debut). Beatty originally wanted Groucho Marx to play Beatty's character's psychiatrist in the film. The role would have been a juicy part and the funniest in the film, and a comeback for Marx's career. During the writing phase of the film, Beatty suggested that maybe Mike Nichols should direct this film. Nichols hadn't yet directed a feature film up to that time. Both Beatty and Allen wrote several drafts for Pussycat. However, Beatty became increasingly upset that Allen began to increase his part to the point where Allen's character had the best, funniest lines in the script. Beatty took his case to Feldman to denounce Allen's involvement in the project. Despite their collaboration, Feldman sided with Allen, partly because Allen's version of the script was funnier than Beatty's. Unhappy with the direction of where the screenplay was going, Beatty left the project. Ultimately, What's New Pussycat? was released without Beatty's involvement and, although Woody Allen did get the writing credit, it was reported that he was not satisfied with the end results. The character that Beatty would have played in the film was portrayed by Peter O'Toole, and Marx's role was played by Peter Sellers. Despite their disputes on the film, both Beatty and Feldman reconciled and remained friends until Feldman's death in 1968. Although not happy on how the film was made, both Beatty and Allen went on their own careers and both understood that when developing their own projects, they must have total control over them.[citation needed] In the mid-1960s, while touring in France with then-girlfriend Leslie Caron, Beatty approached the film director François Truffaut and proposed to him to direct a film on the life of French singer Édith Piaf which would star Caron as Piaf. Beatty would have produced the project. Truffaut declined the offer. As soon as Beatty returned to New York, he got word that a hot, sharp script by two young writers David Newman and Robert Benton was being presented. The script was about Bonnie and Clyde.[citation needed] During pre-production on Bonnie and Clyde, Beatty continued to look for future projects. During that time, he was toying with the idea of remaking the Jean Renoir film The Lower Depths. However, the idea of remaking Renoir's film was quickly abandoned when Beatty, with the suggestion of his friend and idol Cary Grant, went on to look for/think of a romantic comedy to make. Eight years later, Beatty's "romantic comedy" led him to produce, co-write and star in Shampoo. After the release of Bonnie and Clyde and while writing the script of Shampoo, Beatty, who was fascinated in "everything Russia", visited the Soviet Union several times with then-girlfriend Julie Christie. It was during those trips when Beatty took interest in the life of the American Communist journalist John Reed. During that time, it was also reported that Beatty had written a screenplay called Natural State which was about a love affair between an American man and a Russian woman set during the height of the Cold War. The Natural State screenplay remained unrealized and Beatty eventually made the film about John Reed thirteen years later.[citation needed] Beatty intended for Reds to be his first feature as director, but Beatty nearly stepped into the role of a director of two films that he starred in in the 1970s. During production of McCabe & Mrs. Miller, Beatty didn't like the direction Robert Altman was taking. Beatty re-wrote his own scenes and lines as well as Julie Christie's scenes and lines. Beatty wanted to take control of the film and to direct the film himself due to Altman's lack of skill (according to Beatty). However, Altman resumed his position as director and Beatty resumed his original position as well. A few years later, during the pre-production of The Fortune, Beatty was eager to work with Jack Nicholson for the first time, and Beatty toyed with the idea of directing the film. Beatty originally thought of directing the film as a silent feature, as an homage to the silent comedies of Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton and Mack Sennett. Eventually, Mike Nichols was chosen to be the film's director. Also in the 1970s, according to Robert Evans, Evans approached Beatty to star in the title role of The Great Gatsby. But like many well-known actors during that time, Beatty turned down the part. However, Beatty was more interested in taking control of the film by being its producer and to direct Gatsby. Beatty thought that Evans should play the part of Gatsby (Evans started his career as an actor) who Beatty thought would be ideal. Beatty also envisioned Evan's ex-wife Ali MacGraw to play Daisy. Eventually, Beatty moved on to other projects, and The Great Gatsby starred Robert Redford and Mia Farrow. In 1975, after the release of Shampoo, screenwriter Paul Schrader approached Beatty to star in a script he had written, Hardcore. Beatty was interested in being involved in the film, and even thought of being the producer of the film as well as maybe taking the role of director. Beatty eventually, passed on the film and went on to direct Heaven Can Wait. While preparing Heaven Can Wait, Beatty met screenwriter James Toback, who showed Beatty a new script he had written entitled Love and Money. Beatty expressed interest, but eventually, after finishing Heaven Can Wait, Beatty placed his whole attention on making Reds. Beatty also flirted with the idea of starting in Fosse's All That Jazz. In the 1980s, Beatty had several projects he rejected and considered making. Beatty considered starring in Robert Towne's film Tequila Sunrise, as well as another project written by Towne titled Mermaid, which would have been directed by Arthur Penn. Beatty was also pursued by filmmaker Paul Mazursky to star in his film Down and Out in Beverly Hills, but Beatty turned it down. In the late 1980s, after finishing Ishtar and producing The Pick-Up Artist, Beatty bought the rights to produce the life of Warhol superstar Edie Sedgwick. Although, he would not have an acting role in the film, Beatty wanted to direct it and he co-wrote a script with James Toback, entitled Edie. The film would have been about the rise of Sedgwick's fame in the 1960s and how her Svengali-like relationship with Andy Warhol, her troubled romance with Bob Dylan and her drug abuse led her to her downfall in the 1970s. Beatty wanted the film to have a documentary feel. He only wanted to use hand-held cameras, 8mm cameras in some scenes, and black and white stock in the film. At the time, Beatty considered Michelle Pfeiffer to play Sedgwick and Al Pacino to play Warhol. However, the pre-production of the film was halted with constant decision changing. During casting, Beatty thought that maybe he wasn't appropriate to be the film's director. Beatty asked Bob Fosse if he would direct the film. When Fosse passed on the film, Pfeiffer moved on to do other films. Beatty later considered either Molly Ringwald, Jessica Lange or Madonna to play Sedgwick. Beatty eventually cancelled Edie and went on to direct and star in Dick Tracy. In the 1990s, Beatty starred in Dick Tracy, Bugsy and Love Affair, and was in talks of starring in films such as Jade, Misery (who briefly considered producing and possibly direct, as well), The Doctor, Nixon, Schindler's List and Boogie Nights, which Beatty admits he regrets not being in. During this time, Beatty found a script titled Ocean of Storms. It was a romance about an older astronaut who rejoins in the space program for another shot at glory and falls for a female astronaut. The script was written by documentary producer Ben Young Mason and writer-actor Tony Bill. Beatty bought the rights to the script and pitched the film to 20th Century Fox. However, like most of Beatty projects, it was stalled in development. After completing Love Affair, Beatty wanted himself and Annette Bening to star in Ocean of Storms as their next project. He tried to convince Martin Scorsese to direct it. Scorsese passed on the project, but Beatty continued to develop it over the years, with rewrites from several screenwriters including Robert Towne, Lawrence Wright and Aaron Sorkin. In 1999, Clint Eastwood and Warner Bros. had released their own astronaut film Space Cowboys. After the success of that film, and the disappointing box office success of both Love Affair and Bulworth, Beatty pulled the plug on Ocean of Storms. In the early 2000s, Beatty thought of making a sequel to Bulworth called Bulworth 2000 in which the plot would have started a few minutes after the events of the end of Bulworth. Bulworth 2000 was intended to satirize the 2000 presidential election, but the film never came to fruition. Bulworth 2000 was not the only sequel Beatty considered making. For years, he was thinking of making a sequel to both Shampoo and Dick Tracy, but nothing came of it. Also, during the 2000s, Beatty was asked to play the title role in Quentin Tarantino revenge epic Kill Bill, which would have had Beatty as Bill, a James Bond-like character. Beatty passed on the film but suggested Tarantino ask martial arts star David Carradine to play the part. Beatty also turned down another chance to play Richard Nixon in Frost/Nixon. From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, Warren Beatty expressed an interest in producing, adapting and possibly directing a film based on Scott Thorson's book on his romance with Liberace. His intention was to make a twisted black comedy-romance/showbiz satire with lots of music. Beatty toyed with the idea of either casting Michael Douglas, Bill Murray or Robin Williams to play Liberace and Justin Timberlake to play Scott Thorson. Beatty also talked to several actors about being in the film, such as Oliver Platt to play Liberace's agent, Seymour Heller, Shirley MacLaine as Liberace's mother (which would have been the first time that the brother and sister would have worked together in a film), and in a small comic role, Johnny Depp as Liberace's drug addicted plastic surgeon. Thorson's book was eventually made into an HBO original movie. Despite some casting conversations and writing a draft, Beatty eventually dropped the project and began to slowly work on Untitled Warren Beatty project. Political work In 1972, Beatty was part of the "inner circle" of Senator George McGovern's presidential campaign. He traveled extensively and was instrumental in organizing fundraising.[8] Honors Beatty at the 47th Venice Film Festival. He has received the Eleanor Roosevelt Award from the Americans for Democratic Action, the Brennan Legacy Award from the Brennan Center for Justice at the New York University School of Law, the Philip Burton Public Service Award from the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights, and the Spirit of Hollywood Award from the Associates for Breast and Prostate Cancer Studies. Beatty was a founding board member of the Center for National Policy, a founding member of the Progressive Majority, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, has served as the Campaign Chair for the Permanent Charities Committee, and has participated in the World Economic Forum at Davos, Switzerland. He served on the Board of Trustees at the Scripps Research Institute and the board of directors of the Motion Picture and Television Fund Foundation. He was named Honorary Chairman of the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in 2006. He was nominated twice for the Directors Guild of America Award for Best Director, and received the award for Reds. He was nominated four times for the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Screenplay, which he received three times for Shampoo, Heaven Can Wait, and Reds. The National Association of Theatre Owners awarded him with the Star of the Year Award in 1975, and in 1978 the Director of the Year Award and the Producer of the Year Award. He was nominated six times and received the Saturn Award three times for Best Film, Actor, and Screenplay. He received two Photoplay Awards for Best Actor and Best Film. He received an American Movie Award in 1981. He was nominated for three Golden Laurel Awards, winning Best Action Drama for Bonnie and Clyde. In 1999, Beatty was nominated for the Golden Satellite Award for Best Actor. He has received awards from numerous critic organizations, including sixteen nominations and ten awards for producing, writing, acting, and directing from the New York and the Los Angeles Film Critics, the National Board of Review, and the National Society of Film Critics.[citation needed] Beatty received numerous awards and nominations for Bulworth, including the Los Angeles Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay, and nominations for the Academy, Writers Guild, Golden Globe, and the Chicago Film Critics Association Awards for Best Screenplay. The film also received Golden Globe nominations for Best Picture and Best Actor, the Venice Film Festival Golden Lion Award for Best Film, and a Satellite Award for Best Actor. Beatty at the 62nd Academy Awards. He received the Alan J. Pakula Memorial Award from the National Board of Review in 1998. He received the Akira Kurosawa Lifetime Achievement Award in 2002 from the San Francisco International Film Festival. He has received the Board of Governors Award from the American Society of Cinematographers, the Distinguished Director Award from the Costume Designers Guild, the Life Achievement Award from the Publicists Guild, and the Outstanding Contribution to Cinematic Imagery Award from the Art Directors Guild. In 2004, he received the Kennedy Center Honors in Washington, D.C., and the Milestone Award from the Producers Guild of America. He was honored with the American Film Institute's Life Achievement Award in 2008. In March 2013 he was inducted into the California Hall of Fame. Beatty has received a number of international awards: Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters (France, 1992); David di Donatello Award twice, for Best Actor and Best Producer, from the Academy of Italian Cinema and its Lifetime Achievement Award (Italy, 1998). In 1998, he was also nominated for a Golden Lion Award for Best Film for Bulworth and received a Career Golden Lion Award from the Venice Film Festival. He was also nominated for the Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists Award for Best Director for Dick Tracy. He received the Donostia Lifetime Achievement Award from the San Sebastián International Film Festival (2001, Spain). He was nominated for two BAFTA awards for Best Actor, and he received the British Academy Fellowship from BAFTA (2002) and the Stanley Kubrick Britannia Award (2011).[citation needed] Personal life Beatty has been married to actress Annette Bening since March 12, 1992. They have four children: transgender son Stephen (born January 8, 1992),[9] Benjamin (born August 23, 1994), and daughters Isabel (born January 11, 1997), Ella (born April 8, 2000). Prior to marrying Bening, Beatty was well known for his high profile romantic relationships that received generous media coverage. He had relationships with Susan Strasberg, Madonna,[10] Cher,[11] Michelle Phillips;[10] Natalie Wood,[11] Lana Wood,[12] Christine Kaufmann,[13] Diane Keaton,[10] Julie Christie,[10] Joan Collins,[11] Leslie Caron,[10] Isabelle Adjani,[10] Mary Tyler Moore,[10] Goldie Hawn,[10] Kate Jackson,[10] Britt Ekland,[14] Gilda Radner, Diane Sawyer,[10] Carly Simon (see song "You're So Vain"),[10] Annette Stroyberg, Linda McCartney,[15] Jacqueline Onassis,[16] Carol Alt,[15] Joni Mitchell,[15] Maria Callas,[17] Barbara Harris,[17] Claudia Cardinale,[17] Brigitte Bardot,[10] Justine Bateman,[10] Janice Dickinson,[10] Elle Macpherson,[10] Shirley Bassey and Stephanie Seymour.[10] Filmography Year Film Role Notes 1957 Studio One in Hollywood First Card Player Episode: "The Night America Trembled" 1957 Suspicion Boy Episode: "Heartbeat" 1959–60 The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis Milton Armitage 5 episodes 1960 Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond Harry Grayson Episode: "The Visitor" 1961 Splendor in the Grass Bud Stamper Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actor (shared with Richard Beymer and Bobby Darin) Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama 1961 The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone Paolo di Leo 1962 All Fall Down Berry-Berry Willart 1964 Lilith Vincent Bruce 1965 Mickey One Mickey One 1965 Promise Her Anything Harley Rummell 1966 Kaleidoscope Barney Lincoln 1967 Bonnie and Clyde Clyde Barrow Also producer David di Donatello Award for Best Foreign Actor (tied with Spencer Tracy for Guess Who's Coming to Dinner) Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film Laurel Award for Top Action-Drama Film National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Film (2nd place) Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor Nominated – Academy Award for Best Picture Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama 1970 The Only Game in Town Joe Grady 1971 McCabe & Mrs. Miller John McCabe 1971 Dollars Joe Collins 1974 The Parallax View Joseph Frady 1975 Shampoo George Roundy Also writer and producer Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay (shared with Robert Towne) Nominated – Academy Award For Best Original Screenplay (shared with Robert Towne) Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy 1975 The Fortune Nicky Wilson 1978 Heaven Can Wait Joe Pendleton/Leo Farnsworth/Tom Jarrett Also producer, director, and writer Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film Saturn Award for Best Actor Saturn Award for Best Writing (shared with Elaine May) Writers Guild of America Award for Best Adapted Screenplay (shared with Elaine May) Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor Nominated – Academy Award for Best Picture Nominated – Academy Award for Best Directing (shared with Buck Henry) Nominated – Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay (shared with Elaine May) Nominated – Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film (shared with Buck Henry) Nominated – Saturn Award for Best Direction (shared with Buck Henry) 1981 Reds John Reed Also producer, director, and writer Academy Award for Best Directing American Movie Award Special Marquee David di Donatello Award for Best Foreign Producer Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film Golden Globe Award for Best Director Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Film (runner-up) Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Director Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Screenplay (2nd place, shared with Trevor Griffiths) National Board of Review Award for Best Director New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director (runner-up) Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay (shared with Trevor Griffiths) Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor Nominated – Academy Award for Best Picture Nominated – Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay (shared with Trevor Griffiths) Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay (shared with Trevor Griffiths) Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama 1987 Ishtar Lyle Rogers Also producer Nominated – Razzie Award for Worst Picture 1990 Dick Tracy Dick Tracy Also director and producer Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy Nominated – Saturn Award for Best Actor Nominated – Silver Ribbon Award for Best Foreign Director 1991 Bugsy Bugsy Siegel Also producer Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor (2nd place) Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Film National Board of Review Award for Best Actor National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor (2nd place) Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor Nominated – Academy Award for Best Picture (shared with Mark Johnson and Barry Levinson) Nominated – Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama 1994 Love Affair Mike Gambril Also writer and producer Nominated – Razzie Award for Worst Prequel, Remake, Rip-off or Sequel 1998 Bulworth Sen. Jay Billington Bulworth Also writer, director, and producer Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Screenplay (shared with Jeremy Pikser) Nominated – Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay (shared with Jeremy Pikser) Nominated – Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Screenplay (shared with Jeremy Pikser) Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Nominated – Satellite Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Nominated – Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay (shared with Jeremy Pikser) Nominated – Venice Film Festival Award for Best Film 2001 Town & Country Porter Stoddard 2016 Untitled Warren Beatty project Howard Hughes Completed Diane Keaton (born Diane Hall; January 5, 1946) is an American film actress, director, producer and screenwriter. She began her career on stage and made her screen debut in 1970. Her first major film role was as Kay Adams-Corleone in The Godfather (1972), but the films that shaped her early career were those with director and co-star Woody Allen, beginning with Play It Again, Sam in 1972. Her next two films with Allen, Sleeper (1973) and Love and Death (1975), established her as a comic actor. Her fourth, Annie Hall (1977), won her the Academy Award for Best Actress. Keaton subsequently expanded her range to avoid becoming typecast as her Annie Hall persona. She became an accomplished dramatic performer, starring in Looking for Mr. Goodbar (1977) and received Academy Award nominations for Reds (1981), Marvin's Room (1996) and Something's Gotta Give (2003). Some of her popular later films include Baby Boom (1987), Father of the Bride (1991), The First Wives Club (1996), and The Family Stone (2005). Keaton's films have earned a cumulative gross of over US$1.1 billion in North America.[1] In addition to acting, she is also a photographer, real estate developer, author, and occasional singer. Contents 1 Early life and education2 Career 2.1 1970s2.2 1980s2.3 1990s2.4 2000s2.5 2010s3 Personal life 3.1 Relationships and family3.2 Religious beliefs3.3 Other activities4 Filmography 4.1 Film4.2 Television5 Awards and nominations6 Books 6.1 As writer6.2 As photographer6.3 As editor7 References8 Further reading9 External links Early life and education Keaton was born as Diane Hall on January 5, 1946 in Los Angeles, California.[2] Her mother, Dorothy Deanne (née Keaton; 1921–2008), was a homemaker and amateur photographer; her father, John Newton Ignatius "Jack" Hall (1922–1990), was a real estate broker and civil engineer.[3][4][5] Keaton was raised a Free Methodist by her mother.[6][7][8] Her mother won the "Mrs. Los Angeles" pageant for homemakers; Keaton has said that the theatricality of the event inspired her first impulse to be an actress, and led to her wanting to work on stage.[9] She has also credited Katharine Hepburn, whom she admires for playing strong and independent women, as one of her inspirations.[10] Keaton is a 1963[citation needed] graduate of Santa Ana High School in Santa Ana, California. During her time there, she participated in singing and acting clubs at school, and starred as Blanche DuBois in a school production of A Streetcar Named Desire. After graduation, she attended Santa Ana College, and later Orange Coast College as an acting student, but dropped out after a year to pursue an entertainment career in Manhattan.[11] Upon joining the Actors' Equity Association, she changed her surname to Keaton, her mother's maiden name, as there was already an actress registered under the name of Diane Hall.[12] For a brief time, she also moonlighted at nightclubs with a singing act.[13] She would later revisit her nightclub act in Annie Hall (1977) and And So It Goes (2014), and a cameo in Radio Days (1987). Keaton with Woody Allen and Jerry Lacy in the play Play It Again, Sam (1969/1970) Keaton began studying acting at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City. She initially studied acting under the Meisner technique, an ensemble acting technique first evolved in the 1930s by Sanford Meisner, a New York stage actor/acting coach/director who had been a member of The Group Theater (1931–1940). She has described her acting technique as, "[being] only as good as the person you're acting with ... As opposed to going it on my own and forging my path to create a wonderful performance without the help of anyone. I always need the help of everyone!"[13] According to Jack Nicholson, "She approaches a script sort of like a play in that she has the entire script memorized before you start doing the movie, which I don't know any other actors doing that."[14] In 1968, Keaton became a member of the "Tribe" and understudy to Sheila in the original Broadway production of Hair.[15] She gained some notoriety for her refusal to disrobe at the end of Act I when the cast performs nude, even though nudity in the production was optional for actors (Those who performed nude received a $50 bonus).[9][16] After acting in Hair for nine months, she auditioned for a part in Woody Allen's production of Play It Again, Sam. After nearly being passed over for being too tall (at 5 ft 8 in./1.73 m she is two inches/5 cm taller than Allen), she won the part.[3] Career 1970s After being nominated for a Tony Award for Play It Again, Sam, Keaton made her film debut in Lovers and Other Strangers (1970). She followed with guest roles on the television series Love, American Style and Night Gallery, and Mannix. Between films, Keaton appeared in a series of deodorant commercials. Keaton's breakthrough role came two years later when she was cast as Kay Adams, the girlfriend and eventual wife of Michael Corleone (played by Al Pacino) in Francis Ford Coppola's 1972 film The Godfather. Coppola noted that he first noticed Keaton in Lovers and Other Strangers, and cast her because of her reputation for eccentricity that he wanted her to bring to the role[17] (Keaton claims that at the time she was commonly referred to as "the kooky actress" of the film industry).[9] Her performance in the film was loosely based on her real life experience of making the film, both of which she has described as being "the woman in a world of men."[9] The Godfather was an unparalleled critical and financial success, becoming the highest grossing film of the year and winning the Best Picture Oscar of 1972. Two years later she reprised her role as Kay Adams in The Godfather Part II. She was initially reluctant, stating that, "At first, I was skeptical about playing Kay again in the Godfather sequel. But when I read the script, the character seemed much more substantial than in the first movie."[11] In Part II her character changed dramatically, becoming more embittered about her husband's activities. Even though Keaton received widespread exposure from the films, her character's importance was minimal. Time wrote that she was "invisible in The Godfather and pallid in The Godfather, Part II."[18] Keaton's other notable films of the 1970s included many collaborations with Woody Allen. Although by the time they made films together, their romantic involvement had ended, she played many eccentric characters in several of his comic and dramatic films, including Sleeper, Love and Death, Interiors, Manhattan, and the film version of Play It Again, Sam, directed by Herbert Ross. Allen has credited Keaton as his muse during his early film career.[19] In 1977, Keaton starred with Allen in the romantic comedy Annie Hall, one of her most famous roles. Annie Hall was written and directed by Allen and the film was believed to be autobiographical of his relationship with Keaton. Allen based the character of Annie Hall loosely on Keaton ("Annie" is a nickname of hers, and "Hall" is her original surname). Many of Keaton's mannerisms and her self-deprecating sense of humor were added into the role by Allen. (Director Nancy Meyers has claimed "Diane's the most self-deprecating person alive."[20]) Keaton has also said that Allen wrote the character as an "idealized version" of herself.[21] The two starred as a frequently on-again, off-again couple living in New York City. Her acting was later summed up by CNN as "awkward, self-deprecating, speaking in endearing little whirlwinds of semi-logic",[22] and by Allen as a "nervous breakdown in slow motion."[23] The film was both a major financial and critical success, and won the Academy Award for Best Picture. Keaton's performance also won the Academy Award for Best Actress. In 2006, Premiere magazine ranked Keaton in Annie Hall as 60th on its list of the "100 Greatest Performances of All Time," and noted: It's hard to play ditzy. ... The genius of Annie is that despite her loopy backhand, awful driving, and nervous tics, she's also a complicated, intelligent woman. Keaton brilliantly displays this dichotomy of her character, especially when she yammers away on a first date with Alvy (Woody Allen) while the subtitle reads, 'He probably thinks I'm a yoyo.' Yo-yo? Hardly.[24] Keaton's eccentric wardrobe in Annie Hall, which consisted mainly of vintage men's clothing, including neckties, vests, baggy pants, and fedora hats, made her an unlikely fashion icon of the late 1970s. A small amount of the clothing seen in the film came from Keaton herself, who was already known for her tomboyish clothing style years before Annie Hall, and Ruth Morley designed the movie's costumes.[25] Soon after the film's release, men's clothing and pantsuits became popular attire for women.[26] She is known to favor men's vintage clothing, and usually appears in public wearing gloves and conservative attire. (A 2005 profile in the San Francisco Chronicle described her as "easy to find. Look for the only woman in sight dressed in a turtleneck on a 90-degree afternoon in Pasadena.[27]) Her photo by Douglas Kirkland appeared on the cover of the September 26, 1977, issue Time magazine with the story dubbing her "the funniest woman now working in films."[18] Later that year, she departed from her usual lighthearted comic roles when she won the highly coveted lead role in the drama Looking for Mr. Goodbar, based on the novel by Judith Rossner. In the film she played a Catholic schoolteacher for deaf children who lives a double life, spending nights frequenting singles bars and engaging in promiscuous sex. Keaton became interested in the role after seeing it as a "psychological case history."[28] The same issue of Time commended her role choice and criticized the restricted roles available for female actors in American films: A male actor can fly a plane, fight a war, shoot a badman, pull off a sting, impersonate a big cheese in business or politics. Men are presumed to be interesting. A female can play a wife, play a whore, get pregnant, lose her baby, and, um, let's see ... Women are presumed to be dull. ... Now a determined trend spotter can point to a handful of new films whose makers think that women can bear the dramatic weight of a production alone, or virtually so. Then there is Diane Keaton in Looking for Mr. Goodbar. As Theresa Dunn, Keaton dominates this raunchy, risky, violent dramatization of Judith Rossner's 1975 novel about a schoolteacher who cruises singles bars.[18] In addition to acting, Keaton has stated that "[I] had a lifelong ambition to be a singer."[29] She had a brief, unrealized career as a recording artist in the 1970s. Her first record was an original cast recording of Hair, in 1971. In 1977, she began recording tracks for a solo album, but the finished record never materialized.[3] Keaton met with more success in the medium of still photography. Like her character in Annie Hall, Keaton had long relished photography as a favorite hobby, an interest she picked up as a teenager from her mother. While traveling in the late 1970s she began exploring her avocation more seriously. "Rolling Stone had asked me to take photographs for them, and I thought, 'Wait a minute, what I'm really interested in is these lobbies, and these strange ballrooms in these old hotels.' So I began shooting them", she recalled in 2003. "These places were deserted, and I could just sneak in anytime and nobody cared. It was so easy and I could do it myself. It was an adventure for me." Reservations, her collection of photos of hotel interiors, was published in book form in 1980.[30] 1980s Keaton at the White House with Warren Beatty and First Lady Nancy Reagan, December 1981 In Manhattan in 1979, Keaton and Woody Allen ended their long working relationship, and the film would be their last major collaboration until 1993. In 1978, she became romantically involved with Warren Beatty, and two years later he cast her to play opposite him in Reds. In the film, she played Louise Bryant, a journalist and feminist, who flees from her husband to work with radical journalist John Reed (Beatty), and later enters Russia to locate him as he chronicles the Russian Civil War. The New York Times wrote that Keaton was, "nothing less than splendid as Louise Bryant – beautiful, selfish, funny and driven. It's the best work she has done to date."[31] Keaton received her second Academy Award nomination for the film. Beatty cast Keaton after seeing her in Annie Hall, as he wanted to bring her natural nervousness and insecure attitude to the role. The production of Reds was delayed several times since its conception in 1977, and Keaton almost left the project when she believed it would never be produced. Filming finally began two years later. In a 2006 Vanity Fair story, Keaton described her role as "the everyman of that piece, as someone who wanted to be extraordinary but was probably more ordinary ... I knew what it felt like to be extremely insecure." Assistant director Simon Relph later stated that Louise Bryant was one of her most difficult roles, and that "[she] almost got broken."[32] 1984 brought The Little Drummer Girl, Keaton's first excursion into the thriller and action genre. The Little Drummer Girl was both a financial and critical failure, with critics claiming that Keaton was miscast for the genre, such as one review from The New Republic claiming that "the title role, the pivotal role, is played by Diane Keaton, and around her the picture collapses in tatters. She is so feeble, so inappropriate."[33] However, that same year she received positive reviews for her performance in Mrs. Soffel, a film based on the true story of a repressed prison warden's wife who falls in love with a convicted murderer and arranges for his escape. Two years later she starred with Jessica Lange and Sissy Spacek in Crimes of the Heart, adapted from Beth Henley's Pulitzer Prize-winning play into a moderately successful screen comedy. In 1987, she starred in Baby Boom, her first of four collaborations with writer-producer Nancy Meyers. In Baby Boom, Keaton starred as a Manhattan career woman who is suddenly forced to care for a toddler. That same year she made a cameo in Allen's film Radio Days as a nightclub singer. 1988's The Good Mother was a misstep for Keaton. The film was a financial disappointment (according to Keaton, the film was "a Big Failure. Like, BIG failure"),[34] and some critics panned her performance, such was one review from The Washington Post: "her acting degenerates into hype – as if she's trying to sell an idea she can't fully believe in."[35] In 1987, Keaton directed and edited her first feature film, a documentary named Heaven about the possibility of an afterlife. Heaven met with mixed critical reaction, with The New York Times likening it to "a conceit imposed on its subjects."[36] Over the next four years, Keaton went on to direct music videos for artists such as Belinda Carlisle, two television films starring Patricia Arquette, and episodes of the series China Beach and Twin Peaks. 1990s By the 1990s, Keaton had established herself as one of the most popular and versatile actors in Hollywood. She shifted to more mature roles, frequently playing matriarchs of middle-class families. Of her role choices and avoidance of becoming typecast, she said: "Most often a particular role does you some good and Bang! You have loads of offers, all of them for similar roles ... I have tried to break away from the usual roles and have tried my hand at several things."[37] She began the decade with The Lemon Sisters, a poorly received comedy/drama that she starred in and produced, which was shelved for a year after its completion. In 1991, Keaton starred with Steve Martin in the family comedy Father of the Bride. She was almost not cast in the film, as the commercial failure of The Good Mother had strained her relationship with Walt Disney Pictures, the studio of both films.[34] Father of the Bride was Keaton's first major hit after four years of commercial disappointments. Keaton reprised her role four years later in the sequel, as a woman who becomes pregnant in middle age at the same time as her daughter. A review of the film for The San Francisco Examiner was one of many in which Keaton once again received comparison to Katharine Hepburn: "No longer relying on that stuttering uncertainty that seeped into all her characterizations of the 1970s, she has somehow become Katharine Hepburn with a deep maternal instinct, that is, she is a fine and intelligent actress who doesn't need to be tough and edgy in order to prove her feminism."[38] Keaton reprised her role of Kay Adams in 1990's The Godfather Part III. Set 20 years after the end of The Godfather, Part II, Keaton's part had evolved into the estranged ex-wife of Michael Corleone. Criticism of the film and Keaton again centered on her character's unimportance in the film. The Washington Post wrote: "Even though she is authoritative in the role, Keaton suffers tremendously from having no real function except to nag Michael for his past sins."[39] In 1993, Keaton starred in Manhattan Murder Mystery, her first major film role in a Woody Allen film since 1979, having made a cameo in 1987's Radio Days. Her part was originally intended for Mia Farrow, but Farrow dropped out of the project after her split with Allen.[40] In 1995, Keaton directed Unstrung Heroes, her first theatrically released narrative film. The movie, adapted from Franz Lidz's memoir, starred Nathan Watt as a boy in 1960s whose mother (Andie MacDowell ) becomes ill with cancer. As her sickness advances and his inventor father (John Turturro) grows increasingly distant, the boy is sent to live with his two eccentric uncles (Maury Chaykin and Michael Richards). In a geographic switch, Keaton shifted the story's setting from the New York of Lidz's book to the Southern California of her own childhood. Though it played in a relatively limited release and made little impression at the box office, the film and its direction were well-received critically.[41] Keaton's most successful film of the decade was the 1996 comedy The First Wives Club. She starred with Goldie Hawn and Bette Midler as a trio of "first wives": middle-aged women who had been divorced by their husbands in favor of younger women. Keaton claimed that making the film "saved [her] life."[42] The film was a major success, grossing US$105 million at the North American box office,[43] and it developed a cult following among middle-aged women.[44] Reviews of the film were generally positive for Keaton and her co-stars, and she was even referred to by The San Francisco Chronicle as "probably [one of] the best comic film actresses alive."[45] In 1997, Keaton, along Hawn and Midler, was a recipient of the Women in Film Crystal Award, which honors "outstanding women who, through their endurance and the excellence of their work, have helped to expand the role of women within the entertainment industry."[46] Also in 1996, Keaton starred as Bessie, a woman with leukemia, in Marvin's Room, an adaptation of the play by Scott McPherson. Meryl Streep played her estranged sister Lee, and had also initially been considered for the role of Bessie. The film also starred a young Leonardo DiCaprio as Lee's rebellious son. Roger Ebert stated that "Streep and Keaton, in their different styles, find ways to make Lee and Bessie into much more than the expression of their problems."[47] Keaton earned a third Academy Award nomination for the film, which was critically acclaimed. Keaton said that the biggest challenge of the role was understanding the mentality of a person with terminal illness.[9] In 1999 Keaton narrated the one-hour public-radio documentary, "If I Get Out Alive," the first to focus on the conditions and brutality faced by young people in the adult correctional system. The program, produced by Lichtenstein Creative Media, aired on public radio stations across the country, and was honored with a First Place National Headliner Award and a Casey Medal for Meritorious Journalism.[48] 2000s Keaton's first film of 2000 was Hanging Up with Meg Ryan and Lisa Kudrow. Keaton also directed the film, despite claiming in a 1996 interview that she would never direct herself in a film, saying "as a director, you automatically have different goals. I can't think about directing when I'm acting."[34] The film was a drama about three sisters coping with the senility and eventual death of their elderly father, played by Walter Matthau. Hanging Up rated poorly with critics and grossed a modest US$36 million at the North American box office.[49] In 2001, Keaton co-starred with Warren Beatty in Town & Country, a critical and financial fiasco. Budgeted at an estimated US$90 million, the film opened to little notice and grossed only US$7 million in its North American theatrical run.[50] Peter Travers of Rolling Stone claimed that Town & Country was "less deserving of a review than it is an obituary....The corpse took with it the reputations of its starry cast, including Warren Beatty and Diane Keaton."[51] Also in 2001, and 2002, Keaton starred in four low-budget television films. She played a fanatical nun in the religious drama Sister Mary Explains It All, an impoverished mother in the drama On Thin Ice, and a bookkeeper in the mob comedy Plan B. In Crossed Over, she played Beverly Lowry, a woman who forms an unusual friendship with the only woman executed while on death row in Texas, Karla Faye Tucker. Keaton in 2009. Keaton's first major hit since 1996 came in 2003's Something's Gotta Give, directed by Nancy Meyers and co-starring Jack Nicholson. Nicholson and Keaton, aged 66 and 57 respectively, were seen as bold casting choices for leads in a romantic comedy. Twentieth Century Fox, the film's original studio, reportedly declined to produce the film, fearing that the lead characters were too old to be bankable. Keaton commented about the situation in Ladies' Home Journal: "Let's face it, people my age and Jack's age are much deeper, much more soulful, because they've seen a lot of life. They have a great deal of passion and hope—why shouldn't they fall in love? Why shouldn't movies show that?"[52] Keaton played a middle-aged playwright who falls in love with her daughter's much older boyfriend. The film was a major success at the box office, grossing US$125 million in North America.[53] Roger Ebert wrote that "Nicholson and Keaton bring so much experience, knowledge and humor to their characters that the film works in ways the screenplay might not have even hoped for."[54] The following year, Keaton received her fourth Academy Award nomination for her role in the film. Keaton's only film between the years of 2004 and 2006 was the comedy The Family Stone (2005), starring an ensemble cast that also included Sarah Jessica Parker, Claire Danes, Rachel McAdams, and Craig T. Nelson. In the film, scripted and directed by Thomas Bezucha, Keaton played a breast cancer survivor and matriarch of a big New England family, who reunite at the parents' home for their annual Christmas holidays.[55] The film was released to moderate critical and commercial success,[56] and earned US$92.2 million worldwide.[57] Keaton received her second Satellite Award nomination for her portrayal,[58] on which Peter Travers of Rolling Stone commented, "Keaton, a sorceress at blending humor and heartbreak, honors the film with a grace that makes it stick in the memory."[59] In 2007, Keaton starred in both Because I Said So and Mama's Boy. In the romantic comedy Because I Said So, directed by Michael Lehmann, Keaton played a long-divorced mother of three daughters, determined to pair off her only single daughter, Milly, played by Mandy Moore.[60] Also starring Stephen Collins and Gabriel Macht, the project opened to overwhelmingly negative reviews by critics, with Wesley Morris of The Boston Globe calling it "a sloppily made bowl of reheated chick-flick cliches," and was ranked among the worst-reviewed films of the year.[61][62][63] The following year, Keaton received her first and only Golden Raspberry Award nomination to date, for the film.[58] In Mama's Boy, director Tim Hamilton's feature film debut, Keaton starred as the mother of a self-absorbed 29-year-old (played by Jon Heder) whose world turns upside down when his widowed mother starts dating and considers booting him out of the house. Distributed for a limited release to certain parts of the United States only, the independent comedy garnered largely negative reviews.[64] In 2008, Keaton starred alongside Dax Shepard and Liv Tyler in Vince Di Meglio's dramedy Smother, playing the overbearing mother of an unemployed therapist, who decides to move in with him and his girlfriend following the split from her husband, played by Ken Howard. As with Mama's Boy, the film received a limited release only, resulting in a gross of US$1.8 million worldwide.[65] Critical reaction to the film was generally unfavorable,[66] and once again Keaton was dismissed for her role choices, with Sandra Hall of the New York Post writing, "Diane's career is dyin' [...] this time, sadly, she's gone too far. She's turned herself into a mother-in-law joke."[67] Also in 2008, Keaton appeared alongside Katie Holmes and Queen Latifah in the crime-comedy film Mad Money, directed by Callie Khouri. Based on the British television drama Hot Money (2001), the film revolves around three female employees of the Federal Reserve who scheme to steal money that is about to be destroyed.[68] As with Keaton's previous projects, the film bombed at the box offices with a gross total of US$26.4 million,[69] and was universally panned by critics, ranking third in the New York Post‍‍ '​‍s Top 10 Worst Movies of 2008 overview.[70] 2010s In 2010, Keaton starred alongside Rachel McAdams and Harrison Ford in Roger Michell's comedy Morning Glory, playing the veteran TV host of a fictional morning talk show that desperately needs to boost its lagging ratings. Portraying a narcissistic character that would do anything to please the audience, Keaton described her role as "the kind of woman you love to hate."[71] Inspired by Neil Simon's 1972 Broadway play The Sunshine Boys,[72] the film became a moderate success at the box office for a worldwide total of almost US$59 million.[73] Though some critics found that Keaton was underused in the film,[74] the actress was generally praised for her performance, with James Berardinelli of ReelViews noting that "Diane Keaton is so good at her part that one can see her sliding effortlessly into an anchor's chair on a real morning show."[75] Keaton in January 2012. In fall 2010, Keaton joined the production of the comedy drama Darling Companion by Lawrence Kasdan, which was released in 2012. Co-starring Kevin Kline and Dianne Wiest and set in Telluride, Colorado,[76] the film follows a woman, played by Keaton, whose husband loses her much-beloved dog at a wedding held at their vacation home in the Rocky Mountains, resulting in a search party to find the pet.[77] Kasdan's first film in nine years, the film bombed at the US box office, where it scored about US$790,000 throughout its entire theatrical run.[78] Generally negative with the film, critics dismissed the film as "an overwritten, underplotted vanity project," but applauded Keaton's performance.[79][80] Ty Burr from The Boston Globe felt that the film "would be instantly forgettable if not for Keaton, who imbues [her role] with a sorrow, warmth, wisdom, and rage that feel earned [...] Her performance here is an extension of worn, resilient grace."[80] Also in 2011, Keaton began production on Justin Zackham's 2013 ensemble comedy The Big Wedding, in which she, along with Robert De Niro, played a long-divorced couple who, for the sake of their adopted son's wedding and his very religious biological mother, pretend they are still married.[81] Upon release, the remake of the original 2006 French film Mon frère se marie received largely negative reviews.[82] In his review for The New York Post, Lou Lumenick stated that "the brutally unfunny, cringe-worthy The Big Wedding provides ample opportunities for Robert De Niro, Diane Keaton, Susan Sarandon and Robin Williams to embarrass themselves."[83] In 2014, Keaton starred in And So It Goes and 5 Flights Up. In Rob Reiner's romantic dramedy And So It Goes, Keaton portrayed a widowed lounge singer, who finds autumnal love with a bad boy, played by Michael Douglas.[84] The film received largely negative reviews from critics, who felt that "And So It Goes aims for comedy, but with two talented actors stuck in a half-hearted effort from a once-mighty filmmaker, it ends in unintentional tragedy."[85] Keaton co-starred with Morgan Freeman in Richard Loncraine's comedy film 5 Flights Up. Based on the novel Heroic Measures by Jill Ciment, they play a long-married couple who have an eventful weekend after they are forced to contemplate selling their beloved Brooklyn apartment.[86][87] Shot in New York, the film premiered, under its former name Ruth & Alex, at the 2014 Toronto International Film Festival.[88] In 2014 she became the first woman to receive the Golden Lion Award from the Zurich Film Festival.[89][90] Keaton has also joined the cast of Finding Dory, the sequel to the 2003 Pixar computer-animated film Finding Nemo, in which she will provide the voice for Dory’s mother.[91] Personal life Relationships and family Keaton in 2012 Keaton has had several romantic associations with noted entertainment industry personalities starting with her time with the Broadway production of Play It Again, Sam when she auditioned for director Woody Allen. Their association became personal following a dinner after a late night rehearsal. It was her sense of humor that attracted Allen.[92] They briefly lived together during the Broadway production but by the time of the film release of the same name in 1972 their living arrangements became informal.[93] They worked together on eight films between 1971 and 1993, and Keaton has said that Allen remains one of her closest friends.[21] She was already dating Warren Beatty from 1979 when they had co-lead roles in the film Reds.[94] Beatty was a regular subject in tabloid magazines and media coverage to which she was included much to her bewilderment. Her avoidance of the spotlight earned her in 1985 from Vanity Fair the attribution as "the most reclusive star since Garbo."[12] This relationship ended shortly after Reds wrapped. Troubles with the production are thought to have caused strain on the relationship, including numerous financial and scheduling problems.[32] Keaton remains friends with Beatty.[21] Keaton also had a relationship with her The Godfather Trilogy costar Al Pacino. Their on-again, off-again relationship ended following the filming of The Godfather Part III. Keaton said of Pacino, "Al was simply the most entertaining man... To me, that's, that is the most beautiful face. I think Warren was gorgeous, very pretty, but Al's face is like whoa. Killer, killer face."[95] In July 2001, Keaton revealed her thoughts on being older and unmarried: "I don't think that because I'm not married it's made my life any less. That old maid myth is garbage."[96] Keaton has two adopted children, daughter Dexter (adopted 1996) and son Duke (2001). Her father's death made mortality more apparent to her, and she decided to become a mother at age 55.[42] She later said of having children, "Motherhood has completely changed me. It's just about the most completely humbling experience that I've ever had."[97] Religious beliefs Keaton stated that she produced her 1987 documentary Heaven because, "I was always pretty religious as a kid ... I was primarily interested in religion because I wanted to go to heaven." Nevertheless, she has also stated that she considered herself an agnostic.[98] Other activities Keaton is an opponent of plastic surgery. She told More magazine in 2004, "I'm stuck in this idea that I need to be authentic ... My face needs to look the way I feel."[10] Keaton is also active in campaigns with the Los Angeles Conservancy to save and restore historic buildings, particularly in the Los Angeles area.[13] Among the buildings she has been active in restoring is the Ennis House in the Hollywood Hills designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.[27] Keaton had also been active in the failed campaign to save the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles (a hotel featured in Reservations), the location of Robert Kennedy's assassination in 1968. Since May 2005, she has been a contributing blogger at The Huffington Post. Since summer 2006, Keaton has been the new face of L'Oréal.[99] Keaton has served as a producer on films and television series. She produced the Fox series Pasadena, that was canceled after airing only four episodes in 2001 but later completed its run on cable in 2005. In 2003, she produced the Gus Van Sant drama Elephant, about a school shooting. On why she produced the film, she said "It really makes me think about my responsibilities as an adult to try and understand what's going on with young people."[100] Outside of the film industry, Keaton has continued to pursue her interest in photography. As a collector, she told Vanity Fair in 1987: "I have amassed a huge library of images – kissing scenes from movies, pictures I like. Visual things are really key for me."[98] She has published several more collections of her own photographs, and has also served as an editor for collections of vintage photography. Works she has edited in the last decade include a book of photographs by paparazzo Ron Galella; an anthology of reproductions of clown paintings; and a collection of photos of California's Spanish-Colonial-style houses. Keaton has also established herself as a real estate developer. She has resold several mansions in Southern California after renovating and redesigning them. One of her clients is Madonna, who purchased a US$6.5 million Beverly Hills mansion from Keaton in 2003.[101] She received the Film Society of Lincoln Center's Gala Tribute in 2007. Keaton wrote her first memoir, entitled Then Again, for Random House in November 2011.[102] Much of the autobiography relies on her mother Dorothy's private journals, in which she writes at one point: "Diane...is a mystery...At times, she's so basic, at others so wise it frightens me."[103] In 2012, Keaton's audiobook recording of Joan Didion's Slouching Towards Bethlehem was released at Audible.com.[104] Her performance was nominated for a 2013 Audie Award in the Short Stories/Collections category. Filmography Film Year Title Role Notes 1970 Lovers and Other Strangers Joan Vecchio 1971 Men of Crisis: The Harvey Wallinger Story Renata Wallinger Short film 1972 The Godfather Kay Adams 1972 Play It Again, Sam Linda 1973 Sleeper Luna Schlosser 1974 The Godfather Part II Kay Adams 1975 Love and Death Sonja 1976 I Will, I Will... for Now Katie Bingham 1976 Harry and Walter Go to New York Lissa Chestnut 1977 Annie Hall Annie Hall 1977 Looking for Mr. Goodbar Theresa 1978 Interiors Renata 1979 Manhattan Mary 1981 The Wizard of Malta Narrator 1981 Reds Louise Bryant 1982 Shoot the Moon Faith Dunlap 1984 The Little Drummer Girl Charlie 1984 Mrs. Soffel Kate Soffel 1986 Crimes of the Heart Lenny Magrath 1987 Radio Days New Years Singer 1987 Baby Boom J.C. Wiatt 1988 The Good Mother Anna 1989 The Lemon Sisters Eloise Hamer 1990 The Godfather Part III Kay Adams Michelson 1991 Father of the Bride Nina Banks 1993 Manhattan Murder Mystery Carol Lipton 1993 Look Who's Talking Now Daphne Voice 1995 Father of the Bride Part II Nina Banks 1996 The First Wives Club Annie Paradis 1996 Marvin's Room Bessie 1997 The Only Thrill Carol Fitzsimmons 1999 The Other Sister Elizabeth Tate 2000 Hanging Up Georgia Mozell 2001 Town & Country Ellie 2001 Plan B Fran Varecchio 2003 Something's Gotta Give Erica Barry 2005 Terminal Impact Narrator 2005 The Family Stone Sybil Stone 2007 Because I Said So Daphne Wilder 2007 Mama's Boy Jan Mannus 2008 Mad Money Bridget Cardigan 2008 Smother Marilyn Cooper 2010 Morning Glory Colleen Peck 2012 Darling Companion Beth 2013 The Big Wedding Ellie Griffin 2014 And So It Goes Leah 2014 5 Flights Up Ruth Carver 2015 Love the Coopers Charlotte Cooper 2016 Finding Dory Jenny[105] Voice; Filming Television Year Title Role Notes 1970 Love, American Style Segment: "Love and Pen Pals" 1970 Rod Serling's Night Gallery Nurse Frances Nevins 1 episode 1971 The F.B.I. Diane Britt Episode: "Death Watch" 1971 Mannix Cindy Conrad Episode: "The Color of Murder" 1977 The Godfather Saga Kay Adams Corleone TV miniseries 1992 Running Mates Aggie Snow 1994 Amelia Earhart: The Final Flight Amelia Earhart 1997 Northern Lights Roberta Blumstein 2001 Sister Mary Explains It All Sister Mary Ignatius 2002 Crossed Over Beverly Lowry 2003 On Thin Ice Patsy McCartle 2006 Surrender, Dorothy Natalie Swallow 2011 Tilda Tilda Watski Pilot 2014 Schitt's Creek 2016 The Young Pope Sister Mary Upcoming series Awards and nominations Year Award Category Nominated work Result 1977 New York Film Critics Circle Award Best Actress Looking for Mr. Goodbar Nominated 1977 National Board of Review Best Supporting Actress Annie Hall Won 1977 National Society of Film Critics Awards Best Actress Annie Hall Won 1977 New York Film Critics Circle Award Best Actress Annie Hall Won 1977 Academy Awards Best Actress in a Leading Role Annie Hall Won 1978 BAFTA Awards Best Actress Annie Hall Won 1978 Golden Globe Best Motion Picture Actress - Drama Looking for Mr. Goodbar Nominated 1978 Golden Globe Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical/Comedy Annie Hall Won 1978 People's Choice Awards Favorite Motion Picture Actor Nominated 1978 Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards Best Actress Annie Hall Won 1979 People's Choice Awards Favorite Motion Picture Actress Nominated 1980 BAFTA Awards Best Actress Manhattan Nominated 1981 New York Film Critics Circle Awards Best Actress Reds Nominated 1981 Academy Awards Best Actress in a Leading Role Reds Nominated 1982 People's Choice Awards Favorite Motion Picture Actress Nominated 1982 National Society of Film Critics Awards Best Actress Reds Nominated 1982 Golden Globe Best Motion Picture Actress - Drama Reds Nominated 1982 David di Donatello Awards Best Foreign Actress Reds Won 1983 National Society of Film Critics Awards Best Actress Shoot the Moon Nominated 1983 People's Choice Awards Favorite Motion Picture Actress Nominated 1983 Golden Globe Best Actress in a Motion Picture - Drama Shoot the Moon Nominated 1983 BAFTA Awards Best Actress Reds Nominated 1985 Golden Globe Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture - Drama Mrs. Soffel Nominated 1988 Golden Globe Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture - Comedy/Musical Baby Boom Nominated 1988 National Society of Film Critics Awards Best Actress Baby Boom Nominated 1990 Daytime Emmy Outstanding Achievement in Directing - Special Class CBS Schoolbreak Special Nominated 1991 Hasty Pudding Theatricals Woman of the Year Won 1994 Golden Globe Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture - Comedy/Musical Manhattan Murder Mystery Nominated 1995 Golden Globe Best Performance by an Actress in a Miniseries or Motion Picture Made for TV Amelia Earhart: The Final Flight Nominated 1995 New York Women in Film & Television Muse Award Won 1995 Primetime Emmy Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or Special Amelia Earhart: The Final Flight Nominated 1995 Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a TV Movie or Miniseries Amelia Earhart: The Final Flight Nominated 1996 Golden Apple Awards Female Star of the Year Nominated 1996 National Board of Review Best Acting by an Ensemble The First Wives Club Won 1996 Academy Awards Best Actress in a Leading Role Marvin's Room Nominated 1997 Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role Marvin's Room Nominated 1997 Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Cast Marvin's Room Nominated 1997 Women in Film Crystal + Lucy Awards Crystal Award Won 2001 Santa Barbara International Film Festival Modern Master Award Hanging Up Won 2003 National Board of Review Best Actress Something's Gotta Give Won 2003 Washington DC Area Film Critics Association Awards Best Actress Something's Gotta Give Nominated 2003 Southeastern Film Critics Association Awards Best Actress Something's Gotta Give Nominated 2004 U.S. Comedy Arts Festival AFI Star Award Won 2003 Academy Awards Best Actress in a Leading Role Something's Gotta Give Nominated 2004 Phoenix Film Critics Society Awards Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role Something's Gotta Give Nominated 2004 Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Awards Best Actress Something's Gotta Give Nominated 2004 Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards Critics Choice Award - Best Actress Something's Gotta Give Nominated 2004 Golden Globe Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture - Comedy/Musical Something's Gotta Give Won 2004 Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role Something's Gotta Give Nominated 2004 Satellite Awards Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture, Comedy or Musical Something's Gotta Give Won 2005 Satellite Awards Outstanding Actress in a Supporting Role, Comedy or Musical The Family Stone Nominated 2005 New York Film Critics Circle Awards Best Supporting Actress The Family Stone Nominated 2005 Hollywood Film Festival Lifetime Achievement Award Won 2007 Film Society of Lincoln Center Gala Tribute Won 2007 Razzie Awards Worst Actress Because I Said So Nominated John Joseph "Jack" Nicholson (born April 22, 1937) is an American actor and filmmaker, having performed for nearly 60 years. He is known for playing a wide range of starring or supporting roles, including satirical comedy, romance and dark portrayals of excitable and psychopathic characters. In many of his films he played the "eternal outsider, the sardonic drifter", and someone who rebels against the social structure.[1] Nicholson's 12 Academy Award nominations make him the most nominated male actor in the Academy's history. Nicholson has won the Academy Award for Best Actor twice, one for the drama One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) and the other for the romantic comedy As Good as It Gets (1997). He also won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the comedy-drama Terms of Endearment (1983). Nicholson is one of three male actors to win three Academy Awards. Nicholson is one of only two actors to be nominated for an Academy Award for acting in every decade from the 1960s to the 2000s; the other is Michael Caine. He has won six Golden Globe Awards, and received the Kennedy Center Honor in 2001. In 1994, he became one of the youngest actors to be awarded the American Film Institute's Life Achievement Award. Other films in which he has starred include the road movie Easy Rider (1969), the drama Five Easy Pieces (1970), the comedy-drama film The Last Detail (1973), the neo-noir mystery film Chinatown (1974), the drama The Passenger (1975), and the epic film Reds (1981). He played Jack Torrance in Stanley Kubrick's horror film The Shining (1980), the Joker in Batman (1989), and Frank Costello in the Martin Scorsese's neo-noir crime drama The Departed (2006). Other films include the legal drama A Few Good Men (1992), the Sean Penn-directed mystery film The Pledge (2001), and the comedy-drama About Schmidt (2002). Contents 1 Early life2 Career 2.1 Early work2.2 1960s2.3 1970s2.4 1980s2.5 1990s2.6 2000s–present3 Personal life 3.1 Relationships3.2 Vandalism charge3.3 Celebrity friendships3.4 Hobbies4 Honors5 Awards and nominations6 Notes7 References8 Bibliography9 External links Early life Nicholson was born on April 22, 1937 in Neptune City, New Jersey,[2][3] the son of a showgirl, June Frances Nicholson (November 5, 1918 – July 31, 1963) (stage name June Nilson).[4][5] Nicholson's mother was of Irish, English, and Pennsylvania Dutch (German) descent. She married Italian American showman Donald Furcillo (stage name Donald Rose) in 1936, not knowing that he was already married.[6]:8 [7] As June was only 17 years old, unmarried and uncertain of the father's identity when Nicholson was born, her parents[note 1] agreed to raise Nicholson as their own child without revealing his true parentage, and June would act as his sister.[8] In 1974, Time magazine researchers learned, and informed Nicholson, that his "sister," June, was actually his mother, and his other "sister," Lorraine, was really his aunt.[9] By this time, both his mother and grandmother had died (in 1963 and 1970, respectively). On finding out, Nicholson said it was "a pretty dramatic event, but it wasn't what I'd call traumatizing...I was pretty well psychologically formed."[8] Nicholson grew up in Neptune City, New Jersey.[6]:7 He was raised in his mother's Roman Catholic religion.[10][11] Before starting high school, his family moved to an apartment in Spring Lake, New Jersey.[6]:16 "When Jack was ready for high school, the family moved once more-this time two miles (3 km) farther south to old-money Spring Lake, Jersey's so called Irish Riviera, where Ethel May set up her beauty parlor in a rambling duplex at 505 Mercer Avenue."[12] "Nick", as he was known to his high school friends, attended nearby Manasquan High School, where he was voted "class clown" by the Class of 1954. He was in detention every day for a whole school year.[3] A theatre and a drama award at the school are named in his honor. In 2004, Nicholson attended his 50-year high school reunion accompanied by his aunt Lorraine.[6] He served a tour of duty in the Air National Guard. Career Further information: Jack Nicholson filmography Early work Nicholson as Wilbur Force in The Little Shop of Horrors (1960) Nicholson first came to Hollywood in 1954, when he was 17, to visit his sister. He took a job as an office worker for animation legends William Hanna and Joseph Barbera at the MGM cartoon studio. They offered him a starting level job as an animation artist, but he declined, citing his desire to become an actor.[13] He trained to be an actor with a group called the Players Ring Theater, after which time he found small parts performing on the stage and in TV soap operas.[1] He made his film debut in a low-budget teen drama The Cry Baby Killer (1958), playing the title role. For the following decade, Nicholson was a frequent collaborator with the film's producer, Roger Corman. Corman directed Nicholson on several occasions, most notably in The Little Shop of Horrors, as masochistic dental patient and undertaker Wilbur Force, and also in The Raven, The Terror, and The St. Valentine's Day Massacre. Nicholson also worked frequently with director Monte Hellman on low-budget westerns, though two in particular, Ride in the Whirlwind and The Shooting, initially failed to find interest from any US film distributors but gained cult success on the art house circuit in France and were later sold to television. Nicholson also appeared in two episodes of The Andy Griffith Show. 1960s With his acting career heading nowhere, Nicholson seemed resigned to a career behind the camera as a writer/director. His first real taste of writing success was the screenplay for the 1967 counterculture film The Trip (directed by Corman), which starred Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper. After first reading the script, Fonda told Nicholson he was totally impressed by the writing and felt it could become a great film. However, he was disappointed with how the film turned out, and blamed the editing which turned it into a "predictable" film, and said so publicly. "I was livid," he recalls.[14] Nicholson also co-wrote, with Bob Rafelson, the movie Head, which starred The Monkees. In addition, he also arranged the movie's soundtrack. After a spot opened up in Fonda and Hopper's Easy Rider (1969), it led to his first big acting break. Nicholson played hard-drinking lawyer George Hanson, for which he received his first Oscar nomination. The film cost only $400,000 to make and became a blockbuster grossing $40 million.[15] Biographer John Parker states that Nicholson's interpretation of his role placed him in the company of earlier "anti-hero" actors, such as James Cagney and Humphrey Bogart, while promoting him into an "overnight number-one hero of the counter-culture movement."[15] The part was a lucky break for Nicholson—the role had in fact been written for actor Rip Torn, who withdrew from the project after an argument with the film's director and co-star Dennis Hopper.[16] In interview, Nicholson later acknowledged the importance of being cast in Easy Rider: "All I could see in the early films, before Easy Rider, was this desperate young actor trying to vault out of the screen and create a movie career."[17] Nicholson was cast by Stanley Kubrick, who was impressed with his role in Easy Rider, in the part of Napoleon in a film about his life, and although production on the film commenced, the project fizzled out, partly due to a change in ownership at MGM and other issues.[18] 1970s Nicholson starred in Five Easy Pieces alongside Karen Black in 1970 in what became his persona-defining role. Nicholson and Black were nominated for Academy Awards for their performances. Nicholson played Bobby Dupea, an oil rig worker, and Black was his waitress girlfriend. During an interview about the film, Black noted that Nicholson's character in the film was very subdued, and was very different than Nicholson's real-life personality. She says that the now famous restaurant scene was partly improvised by Nicholson, and was out of character for Bobby, who wouldn't have cared enough to argue with a waitress.[19] "I think that Jack really has very little in common with Bobby. I think Bobby has given up looking for love. But Jack hasn't, he's very interested in love, in finding out things. Jack is a very curious, alive human being. Always ready for a new idea."[20]:37 Nicholson himself said as much, telling an interviewer, "I like listening to everybody. This to me is the elixir of life."[21] Black later admitted that she had a crush on Nicholson from the time they met, although they only dated briefly. "He was very beautiful. He just looked right at you...I liked him a lot...He really sort of wanted to date me but I didn't think of him that way because I was going with Peter Kastner...Then I went to do Easy Rider, but didn't see him because we didn't have any scenes together... At the premiere, I saw him out in the lobby afterward and I started crying...He didn't understand that, but what it was was that I really loved him a lot, and I didn't know it until I saw him again, because it all welled up."[20]:36 Within a month after the film's release that September, the movie became a blockbuster, making Nicholson a leading man and the "new American antihero," according to McDougal.[6]:130 Critics began speculating whether he might become another Marlon Brando or James Dean. His career and income skyrocketed. He said, "I was much sought after. Your name becomes a brand image like a product. You become Campbell's soup, with thirty-one different varieties of roles you can play."[6]:130 He told his new agent, Sandy Bresler, to find him unusual roles so he could stretch his acting skill: "I like to play people that haven't existed yet, a 'cusp character,'" he said: I have that creative yearning. Much in the way Chagall flies figures into the air: once it becomes part of the conventional wisdom, it doesn't seem particularly adventurous or weird or wild.[6]:130 "There is James Cagney, Spencer Tracy, Humphrey Bogart and Henry Fonda. After that, who is there but Jack Nicholson?" Mike Nichols, director.[22] Also in 1970 he appeared in the movie adaptation of On A Clear Day You Can See Forever, although most of his performance was left on the cutting room floor. His agent turned down a starring role alongside Marlon Brando in Deliverance when the film's producer and director, John Boorman refused to pay what Nicholson's agent wanted.[6]:130 Nicholson starred in Carnal Knowledge in 1971, a comedy-drama directed by Mike Nichols, which co-starred Art Garfunkel, Ann-Margret and Candice Bergen. He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor. As director, Mike Nichols was limited in the actors who he felt could handle the role, saying, "There is James Cagney, Spencer Tracy, Humphrey Bogart and Henry Fonda. After that, who is there but Jack Nicholson?"[22] During the filming Nicholson struck up what became a lifelong friendship with costar Garfunkel. When he visited Los Angeles, Garfunkel would stay at Nicholson's home in a room Nicholson jokingly called "the Arthur Garfunkel Suite."[6]:127 Other Nicholson roles included Hal Ashby's The Last Detail (1973), with Randy Quaid, for which Nicholson won for Best Actor at the Cannes Film Festival and he was nominated for his third Oscar and a Golden Globe. Television journalist David Gilmour writes that one of his favorite Nicholson scenes from all his films was in this one, when Nicholson slaps his gun on the bar yelling he was the Shore Patrol.[23][24] Critic Roger Ebert called it a very good movie, but credited Nicholson's acting as the main reason: "He creates a character so complete and so complex that we stop thinking about the movie and just watch to see what he'll do next."[25] In 1974 he starred in Roman Polanski's noir thriller, Chinatown, and was again nominated for Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as Jake Gittes, a private detective. The film co-starred Faye Dunaway and John Huston, and included a cameo role with Polanski. Roger Ebert described Nicholson's portrayal as sharp-edged, menacing, and aggressive, a character who knew "how to go over the top," as he did in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. It is that edge that kept Chinatown from becoming a typical genre crime film.[26] Ebert also notes the importance of the role for Nicholson's career, seeing it as a major transition from the exploitation films of the previous decade. "As Jake Gittes he stepped into Bogart's shoes," says Ebert. "As a man attractive to audiences because he suggests both comfort and danger...From Gittes forward, Nicholson created the persona of a man who had seen it all and was still capable of being wickedly amused."[27] in Chinatown (1974) Nicholson had been friends with the director Roman Polanski long before the murder of Polanski's wife, Sharon Tate, at the hands of the Manson Family, and supported him in the days following the deaths.[6]:109–110[28] After Tate's death, Nicholson began sleeping with a hammer under his pillow,[6] and took breaks from work to attend the Manson trial.[13] In 1977, three years after Chinatown, Polanski was arrested at Nicholson's home for the sexual assault of 13-year-old Samantha Geimer, who was modeling for Polanski during a magazine photo shoot around the pool. At the time of the incident, Nicholson was out of town making a film, but his steady girlfriend, actress Anjelica Huston, had dropped by unannounced to pick up some items. She heard Polanski in the other room say "We'll be right out."[29] Polanski then came out with Geimer and he introduced her to Huston, and they chatted about Nicholson's two large dogs which were sitting nearby. Huston recalled Geimer was wearing platform heels and appeared quite tall.[29] After a few minutes of talking, Polanski had packed up his camera gear and Huston saw them drive off in his car. Huston told police the next day, after Polanski was arrested, that she "had witnessed nothing untoward" and never saw them together in the other room.[29] Geimer learned afterwards that Huston herself wasn't supposed to be at Nicholson's house that day since they had recently broken up, but stopped over to pick up some belongings. Geimer described Nicholson's house as "definitely" a guy's house, with lots of wood and shelves crowded with photos and momentos.[30] One of Nicholson's greatest successes came in 1975 with his role as Randle P. McMurphy in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. The movie was an adaptation of Ken Kesey's novel and was directed by Miloš Forman and co-produced by Michael Douglas. Nicholson plays an anti-authoritarian patient at a mental hospital where he becomes an inspiring leader for the other patients. (Playing one of the patients was Danny DeVito in his first significant role. Nicholson learned afterwards that DeVito grew up in the same area of New Jersey and they knew many of the same people.[31]) The film swept the Academy Awards with nine nominations and won the top five, including Nicholson's first for Best Actor. The role seemed perfect for Nicholson, with biographer Ken Burke noting that his "smartass demeanor balances his genuine concern for the treatment of his fellow patients with his independent spirit too free to exist in a repressive social structure."[32][33] Forman allowed Nicholson to improvise throughout the film, including most of the group therapy sequences.[13]:273 Reviewer Marie Brenner notes that his bravura performance "transcends the screen" and continually inspires the other actors by lightening their mental illnesses with his comic dialogue. She describes his performance: "Nicholson is everywhere; his energy propels the ward of loonies and makes of them an ensemble, a chorus of people caught in a bummer with nowhere else to go, but still fighting for some frail sense of themselves....There are scenes in Cuckoo's Nest that are as intimate—and in their language, twice as rough—as the best moments in The Godfather...[and] far above the general run of Hollywood performances.[34] Also in 1975, Nicholson starred in Michelangelo Antonioni's The Passenger (1975), which co-starred Maria Schneider. Nicholson plays the role of a journalist, David Locke, who during an assignment in North Africa decides to quit being a journalist and simply disappear by taking on a new hidden identity. Unfortunately, the dead person whose identity he takes on turns out to have been a weapons smuggler on the run. Antonioni's unusual plot included convincing dialogue and fine acting, states film critic Seymour Chatman.[35] It was shot in Algeria, Spain, Germany and England. The film received good reviews and revived Antonioni's reputation as one of cinema's great directors.[35] He says he wanted the film to have more of a "spy feeling [and] be more political."[35] Nicholson began shooting the film from an unfinished script, notes Judith Crist,[36] yet upon its completion he thought so highly of the film that he bought the world rights and recorded a reminiscence of working with Antonioni.[35] Critic and screenwriter Penelope Gilliatt provides an overview of Nicholson's role: "The Passenger is an unidealized portrait of a drained man whose one remaining stimulus is to push his luck. Again and again in the movie, we watch him court danger. It interests him to walk the edge of risk. He does it with passivity, as if he were taking part in an expressionless game of double-dare with life. Jack Nicholson's performance is a wonder of insight. How to animate a personality that is barely there."[13]:443 He continued to take more unusual roles. He took a small role in The Last Tycoon, opposite Robert De Niro. He took a less sympathetic role in Arthur Penn's western The Missouri Breaks (1976), specifically to work with Marlon Brando. Nicholson was especially inspired by Brando's acting ability, recalling that in his youth, as an assistant manager at a theater, he watched On the Waterfront about forty times.[37] "I'm part of the first generation that idolized Marlon Brando," he said.[38] Marlon Brando influenced me strongly. Today it's hard for people who weren't there to realize the impact that Brando had on an audience.... He's always been the patron saint of actors.[22] Nicholson has observed that while both De Niro and Brando were noted for their skill as method actors, he himself has seldom been described as a method actor, a fact which he sees as an accomplishment: "I'm still fooling them," he told Sean Penn during a phone conversation. "I consider it an accomplishment because there's probably no one who understands Method acting better academically than I do—or actually uses it more in his work. But it's funny, nobody really sees that. It's perception versus reality, I guess."[21] 1980s "His work is always interesting, clearly conceived, and has the X-factor, magic. Jack is particularly suited for roles which require intelligence. He is an intelligent and literate man, and these are almost impossible to act. In The Shining you believe he's a writer, failed or otherwise." Stanley Kubrick[39] Although he garnered no Academy Award for Stanley Kubrick's adaptation of Stephen King's The Shining (1980), it remains one of his more significant roles. He was Kubrick's first choice to play the lead role, although the book's author, Stephen King, wanted the part played by more of an "everyman." However, Kubrick as director won the argument, and described Nicholson's acting quality as being "on a par with the greatest stars of the past, like Spencer Tracy and Jimmy Cagney."[39] On the set, Nicholson always appeared in character, and if Kubrick felt confident that he knew his lines well enough, he encouraged him to improvise and go beyond the script.[39]:434 For example, Nicholson improvised his now famous "Here's Johnny!" line,[39]:433 along with the scene in which he's sitting at the typewriter and unleashes his anger upon his wife.[39]:445 There were also extensive takes of scenes, due to Kubrick's perfectionism. Nicholson's shot a scene with the ghostly bartender thirty-six times.[40] Nicholson states that "Stanley's demanding. He'll do a scene fifty times and you have to be good to do that."[41]:38 In 1982 he starred as in immigration enforcement agent in The Border, directed by Tony Richardson. It co-starred Warren Oates who played a corrupt border official.[42] Richardson wanted Nicholson to play his role less expressively than he had in his earlier roles. "Less is more," he told him, and wanted him to wear reflecting sunglasses to portray what patrolmen wore.[13]:318 Richardson recalled that Nicholson worked hard on the set: "He's what the Thirties and Forties stars were like. He can come on the set and deliver, without any fuss, without taking a long time walking around getting into it. "What do you want? Okay." And he just does it straight off. And then if you want him to do it another way on the next take, he can adapt to that too."[13]:318 Nicholson won his second Oscar, an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, for his role of retired astronaut Garrett Breedlove in Terms of Endearment (1983), directed by James L. Brooks. It starred Shirley MacLaine and Debra Winger. McGilligan claims it was one of Nicholson's most complex and unforgettable characters. He and MacLaine played many of their scenes in different ways, constantly testing and making adjustments. Their scenes together gave the film its "buoyant edge," states McGilligan, and describes Nicholson's acting as "Jack floating like a butterfly."[13]:330 Nicholson continued to work prolifically in the 1980s, starring in such films as The Postman Always Rings Twice (1981), Reds (1981), Prizzi's Honor (1985), The Witches of Eastwick (1987), Broadcast News (1987), and Ironweed (1987). Three Oscar nominations also followed (Reds, Prizzi's Honor, and Ironweed).[43][44][45] John Huston, who directed Prizzi's Honor, said of Nicholson's acting, "He just illuminates the book. He impressed me in one scene after another; the movie is composed largely of first takes with him."[46] In the 1989 Batman movie, Nicholson played the psychotic murderer and villain, The Joker. The film was an international smash hit, and a lucrative percentage deal earned him a percentage of the box office gross estimated at $60 million to $90 million.[47] Nicholson said that he was "particularly proud" of his performance as the Joker: "I considered it a piece of pop art," he said.[21] 1990s For his role as hot-headed Col. Nathan R. Jessup in A Few Good Men (1992), a movie about a murder in a U.S. Marine Corps unit, Nicholson received yet another Academy nomination.[48][49] One review describes his performance as "spellbinding," adding that he portrayed "the essence of the quintessential military mind-set."[50] Critic David Thomson notes that Nicholson's character "blazed and roared."[51] The film's director, Rob Reiner, recalls how Nicholson's level of acting experience affected the other actors during rehearsals: "I had the luck of having Jack Nicholson there. He knows what he's doing, and he comes to play, every time out, full-out performance! And what it says to a lot of the other actors is, 'Oooooh, I better get on my game here because this guy's coming to play! So I can't hold back; I've got to come up to him.' He sets the tone."[52] In 1996, Nicholson collaborated once more with Batman director Tim Burton on Mars Attacks!, pulling double duty as two contrasting characters, President James Dale and Las Vegas property developer Art Land. At first studio executives at Warner Bros. disliked the idea of killing off Nicholson's character, so Burton created two characters and killed them both off. Not all of Nicholson's performances have been well received. He was nominated for Razzie Awards as worst actor for Man Trouble (1992) and Hoffa (1992). However, Nicholson's performance in Hoffa also earned him a Golden Globe nomination.[53][54] While David Thomson states that the film was terribly neglected, since Nicholson portrayed one of his best screen characters, someone who is "snarly, dumb, smart, noble, rascally—all the parts of 'Jack'"[51] Nicholson went on to win his next Academy Award for Best Actor in the romantic comedy, As Good as It Gets (1997), his second film directed by James L. Brooks. He played Melvin Udall, a "wickedly funny,"[55] mean-spirited, obsessive-compulsive novelist. "I'm a studio Method actor," he said. "So I was prone to give some kind of clinical presentation of the disorder."[56] His Oscar was matched with the Academy Award for Best Actress for Helen Hunt, who played a Manhattan wisecracking, single-mother waitress drawn into a love/hate friendship with Udall, a frequent diner in the restaurant. The film was a tremendous box office success, grossing $314 million, which made it Nicholson's second-best-grossing film of his career, after Batman.[22] Nicholson admits he initially didn't like playing the role of a middle-aged man alongside much younger Hunt, seeing it as a movie cliché. "But Helen disarmed that at the first meeting," he says, "and I stopped thinking about it." They got along well during the filming, with Hunt saying that he "treated me like a queen," and they connected immediately: "It wasn't even what we said," she adds. "It was just some frequency we both could tune into that was very, very compatible."[55] Critic Jack Mathews of Newsday described Nicholson as being "in rare form," adding that "it's one of those performances that make you aware how much fun the actor is having."[55] Author and screenwriter Andrew Horton describes their on-screen relationship as being like "fire and ice, oil and water— seemingly complete opposites."[57] Nonetheless, Hunt was Nicholson's perfect counterpart, and delivered "a simply stunning performance," writes critic Louise Keller. Co-star Greg Kinnear's role was also seen as showing his full range of acting in an "exquisitely heartfelt performance."[58] In 2001, Nicholson was the first actor to receive the Stanislavsky Award at the 23rd Moscow International Film Festival for "conquering the heights of acting and faithfulness".[59] 2000s–present In About Schmidt (2002), Nicholson portrayed a retired Omaha, Nebraska, actuary who questions his own life following his wife's death. His quietly restrained performance earned him an Academy Award Nomination for Best Actor. In Anger Management (2003), he played an aggressive therapist assigned to help an overly pacifist man (Adam Sandler). In 2003, Nicholson also starred in Something's Gotta Give, as an aging playboy who falls for the mother (Diane Keaton) of his young girlfriend. In late 2006, Nicholson marked his return to the dark side as Frank Costello, a sadistic Boston Irish Mob boss, based on Whitey Bulger who was still on the run at that time, presiding over Matt Damon and Leonardo DiCaprio in Martin Scorsese's Oscar-winning The Departed, a remake of Andrew Lau's Infernal Affairs. The role earned Nicholson world-wide critical praise along with various award wins and nominations including a Golden Globe nomination for supporting actor. In 2007 Nicholson co-starred with Morgan Freeman in Rob Reiner's The Bucket List.[60] Nicholson and Freeman portrayed dying men who fulfill their list of goals. In researching the role, Nicholson visited a Los Angeles hospital to see how cancer patients coped with their illnesses. His last film role to date saw him reunite with Terms of Endearment and As Good as It Gets director James L. Brooks, for a supporting role as Paul Rudd's character's father in How Do You Know. On February 15, 2015, Nicholson made a special appearance as a presenter on SNL 40, the 40th anniversary special of Saturday Night Live. Personal life Relationships "Nicholson is the Hollywood celebrity who is most like a character in some ongoing novel of our times. He is also the most beloved of stars—not even his huge wealth, his reckless aging, and the public disasters of his private life can detract from this...For he is still a touchstone, someone we value for the way he helps us see ourselves." David Thomson, film critic.[51] Nicholson's only marriage was to Sandra Knight from 1962 to 1968. They had one daughter together, Jennifer (born 1963). Actress Susan Anspach contends that her son, Caleb Goddard (born 1970), was fathered by Nicholson, though he is not convinced he is the father.[61][62] Between 1973 and 1989, Nicholson had an on-again, off-again relationship with actress Anjelica Huston that included periods of overlap with other women, including Danish model Winnie Hollman, by whom he fathered a daughter, Honey Hollman (born 1981).[63] From 1989 to 1994, Nicholson had a relationship with actress Rebecca Broussard. They had two children together: daughter Lorraine (born 1990) and son Raymond (born 1992).[63][64] He states that children added to the quality of his life: "Children give your life a resonance that it can't have without them...As a father I'm there all the time. I give unconditional love. And I have a lot of skills in terms of getting them to express themselves."[21] Nicholson said he was against abortion.[65] Vandalism charge In a criminal lawsuit filed on February 8, 1994, Robert Blank stated that Nicholson, then 56, approached Blank's Mercedes-Benz while he was stopped at a red light in North Hollywood. After accusing the other man of cutting him off in traffic, Nicholson used a golf club to bash the roof and windshield of Blank's car. A witness confirmed Blank's account of the incident, and misdemeanor charges of assault and vandalism were filed against Nicholson. Charges were dropped after Nicholson apologized to Blank and the two reached an undisclosed settlement, which included a reported $500,000 check from Nicholson.[66] Nicholson in 2008 Jack Nicholson with Vladimir Putin in 2001 Celebrity friendships Nicholson lived next door to Marlon Brando for a number of years on Mulholland Drive in Beverly Hills. Warren Beatty also lived nearby, earning the road the nickname "Bad Boy Drive." After Brando's death in 2004, Nicholson purchased his bungalow for $6.1 million, with the purpose of having it demolished. Nicholson stated that it was done out of respect to Brando's legacy, as it had become too expensive to renovate the "derelict" building which was plagued by mold.[67] Nicholson's friendship with author-journalist Hunter S. Thompson is described in Thompson's autobiography Kingdom of Fear.[68] Following Thompson's death in 2005, Nicholson and fellow actors Johnny Depp, John Cusack, and Sean Penn attended the private memorial service in Colorado.[69] Nicholson was also a close friend of Robert Evans, the producer of Chinatown, and after Evans lost Woodland, his home, as the result of a 1980s drug bust, Nicholson and other friends of the producer purchased Woodland to give it back to Evans.[70][71] Hobbies Nicholson is a fan of the New York Yankees and Los Angeles Lakers. He has been a Laker season ticket holder since 1970 and has held courtside season tickets for the past 25 years next to the opponent's benches both at The Forum and Staples Center, missing very few games. In a few instances, Nicholson has engaged in arguments with game officials and opposing players, and even walked onto the court.[72] He was almost ejected from a Lakers playoff game in May 2003 after he yelled at the game's referee.[73] Nicholson is a collector of 20th century and contemporary art, including the work of Henri Matisse, Tamara de Lempicka,[74] Andy Warhol, and Jack Vettriano.[75] In 1995, artist Ed Ruscha was quoted saying that "Jack Nicholson has one of the best collections out here".[76] Honors Nicholson (right) and Dennis Hopper at the 62nd Academy Awards, 1990 Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver announced on May 28, 2008, that Nicholson would be inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts. The induction ceremony took place on December 15, 2008, where he was inducted alongside 11 other legendary Californians.[77][78] In 2010, Nicholson was inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame.[79] In 2011, Nicholson received an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degree from Brown University at its two hundred and forty-third commencement. At the ceremony, Ruth Simmons, Brown University's president, called him, "the most skilled actor of our lifetime".[80] Awards and nominations Further information: List of awards and nominations received by Jack Nicholson With 12 Academy Award nominations (eight for Best Actor and four for Best Supporting Actor), Nicholson is the most nominated male actor in Academy Awards history. Only Nicholson (1960s-2000s), Michael Caine (1960s-2000s), Paul Newman (1950s, 1970s-2000s), and Laurence Olivier (1930s-1970s) have been nominated for an acting (lead or supporting) Academy Award in five decades. With three Oscar wins, he also ties with Walter Brennan, Daniel Day-Lewis, Ingrid Bergman, and Meryl Streep for the second-most Oscar wins in acting categories. Only Katharine Hepburn, with four Oscars, has won more. In 2013, Nicholson co-presented the Academy Award for Best Picture with first lady Michelle Obama. This ceremony marked the eighth time he has presented the Academy Award for Best Picture (1972, 1977, 1978, 1990, 1993, 2006, 2007, and 2013). Nicholson is an active and voting member of the Academy   ****  Amitabh Bachchan (pronounced [əmɪˈtaːbʱ ˈbətʃːən]; born 11 October 1942) is an Indian film actor, producer, television host, and former politician. He first gained popularity in the early 1970s for films such as Zanjeer, Deewaar and Sholay, and was dubbed India's "angry young man" for his on-screen roles in Bollywood. Referred to as the Shahenshah of Bollywood, Star of the Millennium, or Big B,[4][5][6] he has since appeared in over 190 Indian films in a career spanning almost five decades.[7] Bachchan is widely regarded as one of the greatest and most influential actors in the history of Indian cinema as well as world cinema.[8][9][10][11][12] So total was his dominance on the Indian movie scene in the 1970s and 1980s that the French director François Truffaut called him a "one-man industry".[13] Bachchan has won numerous accolades in his career, including four National Film Awards as Best Actor and many awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies. He has won fifteen Filmfare Awards and is the most nominated performer in any major acting category at Filmfare, with 41 nominations overall. In addition to acting, Bachchan has worked as a playback singer, film producer and television presenter. He has hosted several seasons of the game show Kaun Banega Crorepati, India's version of the game show franchise, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?. He also entered politics for a time in the 1980s. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 1984, the Padma Bhushan in 2001 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2015 for his contributions to the arts. The Government of France honoured him with its highest civilian honour, Knight of the Legion of Honour, in 2007 for his exceptional career in the world of cinema and beyond. Bachchan also made an appearance in a Hollywood film, Baz Luhrmann's The Great Gatsby (2013), in which he played a non-Indian Jewish character, Meyer Wolfsheim. Contents  [hide]  1 Early life and family 2 Acting career 2.1 Early career (1969–1972) 2.2 Rise to stardom (1973–1974) 2.3 Superstardom (1975–1988) 2.4 Coolie injury (1982–1983) 2.5 Career decline and retirement (1988–1992) 2.6 Productions and acting comeback (1996–1999) 2.7 Return to prominence (2000–present) 3 Other work 3.1 Politics 3.2 Television appearances 3.3 Voice-acting 3.4 Humanitarian causes 3.5 Business investments 4 Awards and honours 5 Memorials 6 Selected filmography 7 See also 8 Explanatory notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Early life and family Further information: Bachchan family Bachchan was born in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, in north central India.[14] His ancestors on his father's side hailed from a village called Babupatti, in the Raniganj tehsil, in the Pratapgarh district, in the present-day state of Uttar Pradesh, in India.[15] His father Harivansh Rai Bachchan, was a well-known Awadhi dialect-Hindi poet and a Hindu, while his mother, Teji Bachchan, was Sikh.[16] Bachchan was initially named Inquilaab, inspired by the phrase Inquilab Zindabad (which translates into English as "Long live the revolution") popularly used during the Indian independence struggle. However, at the suggestion of fellow poet Sumitranandan Pant, Harivansh Rai changed the boy's name to Amitabh, which, according to a Times of India article, means "the light that will never die".[17][a] Although his surname was Shrivastava, Amitabh's father had adopted the pen name Bachchan ("child-like" in colloquial Hindi), under which he published all of his works.[18] It is with this last name that Amitabh debuted in films and for all other practical purposes, Bachchan has become the surname for all of his immediate family.[19] Bachchan's father died in 2003, and his mother in 2007.[20] Bachchan is an alumnus of Sherwood College, Nainital. He later attended Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi.[21] He has a younger brother, Ajitabh. His mother had a keen interest in theatre and was offered a feature film role, but she preferred her domestic duties. Teji had some influence in Amitabh Bachchan's choice of career because she always insisted that he should "take the centre stage".[22] He is married to actress Jaya Bhaduri.[23] The couple have two children, Shweta Bachchan (known as Shweta Nanda after her marriage to businessman Nikhil Nanda) and Abhishek Bachchan (also an actor, and husband of actress Aishwarya Rai). Acting career Early career (1969–1972) Bachchan made his film debut in 1969, as a voice narrator in Mrinal Sen's National Award-winning film Bhuvan Shome.[24] His first acting role was as one of the seven protagonists in the film Saat Hindustani,[25] directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and featuring Utpal Dutt, Anwar Ali (brother of comedian Mehmood), Madhu and Jalal Agha.[26][27] Anand (1971) followed, in which Bachchan starred alongside Rajesh Khanna. His role as a doctor with a cynical view of life garnered Bachchan his first Filmfare Best Supporting Actor award. He then played his first antagonist role as an infatuated lover-turned-murderer in Parwana (1971). Following Parwana were several films including Reshma Aur Shera (1971). During this time, he made a guest appearance in the film Guddi which starred his future wife Jaya Bhaduri. He narrated part of the film Bawarchi. In 1972 he made an appearance in the road action comedy Bombay to Goa directed by S. Ramanathan which was moderately successful.[28][29][30]Many of Bachchan's films during this early period did not do well, but that was about to change.[31] Rise to stardom (1973–1974) Bachchan and wife Jaya Bhaduri Bachchan in 2013; the couple got married in 1973, after the release of Zanjeer. Bachchan was struggling, seen as a "failed newcomer" who, by the age of 30, had twelve flops and only two hits (as a lead in Bombay to Goa and supporting role in Anand). Bachchan was soon discovered by screenwriter duo Salim-Javed, consisting of Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar.[32] Salim Khan wrote the story, screenplay and script of Zanjeer (1973), and conceived the "angry young man" persona of the lead role. Javed Akhtar came on board as co-writer,[33] and Prakash Mehra, who saw the script as potentially groundbreaking, as the film's director. However, they were struggling to find an actor for the lead "angry young man" role; it was turned down by a number of actors, owing to it going against the "romantic hero" image dominant in the industry at the time.[32] Salim-Javed soon discovered Bachchan and "saw his talent, which most makers didn’t. He was exceptional, a genius actor who was in films that weren’t good."[34] According to Salim Khan, they "strongly felt that Amitabh was the ideal casting for Zanjeer".[32] Salim Khan introduced Bachchan to Prakash Mehra,[33] and Salim-Javed insisted that Bachchan be cast for the role.[32] Zanjeer was a crime film with violent action,[32] in sharp contrast to the romantically themed films that had generally preceded it, and it established Amitabh in a new persona—the "angry young man" of Bollywood cinema.[35] He earned his first Filmfare Award nomination for Best Actor, with Filmfare later considering this one of the most iconic performances of Bollywood history.[31] The film was a huge success and one of the highest-grossing films of that year, breaking Bachchan's dry spell at the box office and making him a star.[36] It was the first of many collaborations between Salim-Javed and Amitabh Bachchan; Salim-Javed wrote many of their subsequent scripts with Bachchan in mind for the lead role, and insisted on him being cast for their later films, including blockbusters such as Deewaar (1975) and Sholay (1975).[34] Salim Khan also introduced Bachchan to director Manmohan Desai with whom he formed a long and successful association, alongside Prakash Mehra and Yash Chopra.[33] Eventually, Bachchan became one of the most successful leading men of the film industry. Bachchan's portrayal of the wronged hero fighting a crooked system in circumstances of deprivation in films like Zanjeer, Deeewar, Trishul, Kaala Patthar, Shakti, resonated with the masses of the time, especially the youth who harbored a simmering discontent owing to social ills such as poverty, hunger, unemployment, corruption, social inequality and the brutal excesses of The Emergency. This led to Bachchan being dubbed an "angry young man", a journalistic catchphrase which became a metaphor for the dormant rage, frustration, restlessness, sense of rebellion and anti-establishment disposition of an entire generation, prevalent in 1970s India.[37][38][39][40] The year 1973 was also when he married Jaya, and around this time they appeared in several films together: not only Zanjeer but also subsequent films such as Abhimaan, which was released only a month after their marriage and was also successful at the box office. Later, Bachchan played the role of Vikram, once again along with Rajesh Khanna, in the film Namak Haraam, a social drama directed by Hrishikesh Mukherjee and scripted by Biresh Chatterjee addressing themes of friendship. His supporting role won him his second Filmfare Best Supporting Actor award. In 1974, Bachchan made several guest appearances in films such as Kunwara Baap and Dost, before playing a supporting role in Roti Kapda Aur Makaan. The film, directed and written by Manoj Kumar, addressed themes of honesty in the face of oppression and financial and emotional hardship, and was the top-earning film of 1974. Bachchan then played the leading role in the film Majboor. The film was a success at the box office.[41] Superstardom (1975–1988) In 1975, he starred in a variety of film genres, from the comedy Chupke Chupke and the crime drama Faraar to the romantic drama Mili. This was also the year in which Bachchan starred in two films regarded as important in Hindi cinema history, both written by Salim-Javed, who again insisted on casting Bachchan.[34] The first was Deewaar, directed by Yash Chopra, where he worked with Shashi Kapoor, Nirupa Roy, Parveen Babi, and Neetu Singh, and earned another Filmfare nomination for Best Actor. The film became a major hit at the box office in 1975, ranking in at number four.[42] Indiatimes Movies ranks Deewaar amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[43] The other, released on 15 August 1975, was Sholay, which became the highest-grossing film ever in India at the time,[44] in which Bachchan played the role of Jaidev. Deewaar and Sholay are often credited with exalting Bachchan to the heights of superstardom, two years after he became a star with Zanjeer, and consolidating his domination of the industry throughout the 1970s and 1980s.[45][46] In 1999, BBC India declared Sholay the "Film of the Millennium" and, like Deewar, it has been cited by Indiatimes Movies as amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[43] In that same year, the judges of the 50th annual Filmfare Awards awarded it with the special distinction award called the Filmfare Best Film of 50 Years. In 1976, he was cast by Yash Chopra in the romantic family drama Kabhie Kabhie. Bachchan starred as a young poet, Amit Malhotra, who falls deeply in love with a beautiful young girl named Pooja (Rakhee Gulzar) who ends up marrying someone else (Shashi Kapoor). The film was notable for portraying Bachchan as a romantic hero, a far cry from his "angry young man" roles like Zanjeer and Deewar. The film evoked a favourable response from critics and audiences alike. Bachchan was again nominated for the Filmfare Best Actor Award for his role in the film. That same year he played a double role in the hit Adalat as father and son. In 1977, he won his first Filmfare Best Actor Award for his performance in Amar Akbar Anthony, in which he played the third lead opposite Vinod Khanna and Rishi Kapoor as Anthony Gonsalves. The film was the highest-grossing film of that year. His other successes that year include Parvarish and Khoon Pasina.[47] He once again resumed double roles in films such as Kasme Vaade (1978) as Amit and Shankar and Don (1978) playing the characters of Don, a leader of an underworld gang and his look-alike Vijay. His performance won him his second Filmfare Best Actor Award. He also gave towering performances in Yash Chopra's Trishul and Prakash Mehra's Muqaddar Ka Sikandar both of which earned him further Filmfare Best Actor nominations. 1978 is arguably considered his most successful year at the box office since all of his six releases the same year, namely Muqaddar Ka Sikandar, Trishul, Don, Kasme Vaade, Ganga Ki Saugandh and Besharam were massive successes, the former three being the consecutive highest-grossing films of the year, remarkably releasing within a couple of months of each other, a rare feat in Indian cinema.[48][49][50][51] In 1979, Bachchan starred in Suhaag which was the highest earning film of that year. In the same year he also enjoyed critical acclaim and commercial success with films like Mr. Natwarlal, Kaala Patthar, The Great Gambler and Manzil. Amitabh was required to use his singing voice for the first time in a song from the film Mr. Natwarlal in which he starred with Rekha. Bachchan's performance in the film saw him nominated for both the Filmfare Best Actor Award and the Filmfare Award for Best Male Playback Singer. He also received Best Actor nomination for Kaala Patthar and then went on to be nominated again in 1980 for the Raj Khosla directed film Dostana, in which he starred opposite Shatrughan Sinha and Zeenat Aman. Dostana proved to be the top-grossing film of 1980.[52] In 1981, he starred in Yash Chopra's melodrama film Silsila, where he starred alongside his wife Jaya and also Rekha. Other successful films of this period include Shaan (1980), Ram Balram(1980), Naseeb (1981), Lawaaris (1981), Kaalia (1981), Yaarana (1981), Barsaat Ki Ek Raat (1981) and Shakti (1982), also starring Dilip Kumar. In 1982 he played double roles in the comedy Satte Pe Satta and action drama Desh Premee which succeeded at the box office along with mega hits like action comedy Namak Halaal, action drama Khud-Daar and the critically acclaimed drama Bemisal.[53] He continued to give major box office hits like Coolie (1983), Andhaa Kanoon (1983), Sharaabi (1984), Mard (1985), Aakhree Raasta (1986), and Shahenshah (1988).[54] Coolie injury (1982–1983) In 1983, he played a triple role in Mahaan, and starred in the top-grossing film of that year, Coolie.[55] Other releases during that year, namely Nastik, Andha Kanoon(in which he had an extended guest appearance) were hits and Pukar was an average grosser.[56] On 26 July 1982, while filming Coolie, in the University Campus in Bangalore, Bachchan suffered a near fatal intestinal injury during the filming of a fight scene with co-actor Puneet Issar.[57] Bachchan was performing his own stunts in the film and one scene required him to fall onto a table and then on the ground. However, as he jumped towards the table, the corner of the table struck his abdomen, resulting in a splenic rupture from which he lost a significant amount of blood. He required an emergency splenectomy and remained critically ill in hospital for many months, at times close to death. The overwhelming public response included prayers in temples and offers to sacrifice limbs to save him, while later, there were long queues of well-wishing fans outside the hospital where he was recuperating.[58] Nevertheless, he resumed filming later that year after a long period of recuperation. The film was released in 1983, and partly due to the huge publicity of Bachchan's accident, the film was a box office success and the top-grossing film of that year.[59] The director, Manmohan Desai, altered the ending of Coolie after Bachchan's accident. Bachchan's character was originally intended to have been killed off but after the change of script, the character lived in the end. It would have been inappropriate, said Desai, for the man who had just fended off death in real life to be killed on screen. Also, in the released film the footage of the fight scene is frozen at the critical moment, and a caption appears onscreen marking this as the instant of the actor's injury and the ensuing publicity of the accident.[60] Later, he was diagnosed with Myasthenia gravis. His illness made him feel weak both mentally and physically and he decided to quit films and venture into politics. At this time he became pessimistic, expressing concern with how a new film would be received, and stating before every release, "Yeh film to flop hogi!" ("This film will flop").[61] Career decline and retirement (1988–1992) Bachchan during the shoot of 1990 Hindi film Agneepath. In 1988, Bachchan returned to films, playing the title role in Shahenshah, which was a box office success.[62] After the success of his comeback film however, his star power began to wane as all of his subsequent films like Jaadugar, Toofan and Main Azaad Hoon (all released in 1989) failed at the box office. Successes during this period like the crime drama Aaj Ka Arjun(1990) and action crime drama Hum (1991), for which he won his third Filmfare Best Actor Award, looked like they might reverse the trend, but this momentum was short-lived and his string of box office failures continued.[63][64] Notably, despite the lack of hits, it was during this era that Bachchan won his first National Film Award for Best Actor for his performance as a Mafia don in the 1990 cult film Agneepath. These years would see his last on-screen appearances for some time. After the release of Khuda Gawah in 1992, Bachchan went into semi-retirement for five years. With the exception of the delayed release of Insaniyat (1994), which was also a box office failure, Bachchan did not appear in any new releases for five years.[65] Productions and acting comeback (1996–1999) Bachchan turned producer during his temporary retirement period, setting up Amitabh Bachchan Corporation, Ltd. (ABCL) in 1996. ABCL's strategy was to introduce products and services covering an entire cross-section of India's entertainment industry. ABCL's operations were mainstream commercial film production and distribution, audio cassettes and video discs, production and marketing of television software, and celebrity and event management.[66] Soon after the company was launched in 1996, the first film it produced was Tere Mere Sapne, which was a moderate success and launched the careers of actors like Arshad Warsi and southern film star Simran. In 1997, Bachchan attempted to make his acting comeback with the film Mrityudata, produced by ABCL. Though Mrityudaata attempted to reprise Bachchan's earlier success as an action hero, the film was a failure both financially and critically.[67] ABCL was the main sponsor of the 1996 Miss World beauty pageant, Bangalore, but lost millions. The fiasco and the consequent legal battles surrounding ABCL and various entities after the event, coupled with the fact that ABCL was reported to have overpaid most of its top level managers, eventually led to its financial and operational collapse in 1997.[68][69] The company went into administration and was later declared a failed company by the Indian Industries board. The Bombay high court, in April 1999, restrained Bachchan from selling off his Bombay bungalow 'Prateeksha' and two flats till the pending loan recovery cases of Canara Bank were disposed of. Bachchan had, however, pleaded that he had mortgaged his bungalow to raise funds for his company.[70] Bachchan attempted to revive his acting career, and eventually had commercial success with Bade Miyan Chote Miyan (1998) and Major Saab (1998),[71] and received positive reviews for Sooryavansham (1999),[72] but other films such as Lal Baadshah (1999) and Hindustan Ki Kasam (1999) were box office failures. Return to prominence (2000–present) Bachchan at the IIFA Awards in 2006 Bachchan with Mohanlal In 2000, Amitabh Bachchan appeared in Yash Chopra's box-office hit, Mohabbatein, directed by Aditya Chopra. He played a stern, elder figure who rivalled the character of Shahrukh Khan. His role won him his third Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award. Other hits followed, with Bachchan appearing as an older family patriarch in Ek Rishtaa: The Bond of Love (2001), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham... (2001) and Baghban (2003). As an actor, he continued to perform in a range of characters, receiving critical praise for his performances in Aks (2001), Aankhen (2002), Khakee (2004) and Dev (2004). His performance in Aks won him his first Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor. One project that did particularly well for Bachchan was Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Black (2005). The film starred Bachchan as an aging teacher of a deaf-blind girl and followed their relationship. His performance was unanimously praised by critics and audiences and won him his second National Film Award for Best Actor, his fourth Filmfare Best Actor Award and his second Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor. Taking advantage of this resurgence, Amitabh began endorsing a variety of products and services, appearing in many television and billboard advertisements. In 2005 and 2006, he starred with his son Abhishek in the films Bunty Aur Babli (2005), the Godfather tribute Sarkar (2005), and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (2006). All of them were successful at the box office.[73][74] His later releases in 2006 and early 2007 were Baabul (2006),[75] Ekalavya and Nishabd (2007), which failed to do well at the box office but his performances in each of them were praised by critics.[76] In May 2007, two of his films Cheeni Kum and the multi-starrer Shootout at Lokhandwala were released. Shootout at Lokhandwala did well at the box office and was declared a hit in India, while Cheeni Kum picked up after a slow start and was a success.[77][78][79][80] A remake of his biggest hit, Sholay (1975), entitled Ram Gopal Varma Ki Aag, released in August of that same year and proved to be a major commercial failure in addition to its poor critical reception.[80] The year also marked Bachchan's first appearance in an English-language film, Rituparno Ghosh's The Last Lear, co-starring Arjun Rampal and Preity Zinta. The film premiered at the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival on 9 September 2007. He received positive reviews from critics who hailed his performance as his best ever since Black.[81] Bachchan was slated to play a supporting role in his first international film, Shantaram, directed by Mira Nair and starring Hollywood actor Johnny Depp in the lead. The film was due to begin filming in February 2008 but due to the writer's strike, was pushed to September 2008.[82] The film is currently "shelved" indefinitely.[83] Vivek Sharma's Bhoothnath, in which he plays the title role as a ghost, was released on 9 May 2008. Sarkar Raj, the sequel of the 2005 film Sarkar, released in June 2008 and received a positive response at the box-office. Paa, which released at the end of 2009 was a highly anticipated project as it saw him playing his own son Abhishek's Progeria-affected 13-year-old son, and it opened to favourable reviews, particularly towards Bachchan's performance and was one of the top-grossing films of 2009.[84] It won him his third National Film Award for Best Actor and fifth Filmfare Best Actor Award. In 2010, he debuted in Malayalam film through Kandahar, directed by Major Ravi and co-starring Mohanlal.[85] The film was based on the hijacking incident of the Indian Airlines Flight 814.[86] Bachchan declined any remuneration for this film.[87] In 2013 he made his Hollywood debut in The Great Gatsby making a special appearance opposite Leonardo DiCaprio and Tobey Maguire. In 2014, he played the role of the friendly ghost in the sequel Bhoothnath Returns. The next year, he played the role of a grumpy father suffering from chronic constipation in the critically acclaimed Piku which was also one of the biggest hits of 2015.[88][89][90] A review in Daily News and Analysis (DNA) summarized Bachchan's performance as "The heart and soul of Piku clearly belong to Amitabh Bachchan who is in his elements. His performance in Piku, without doubt, finds a place among the top 10 in his illustrious career."[91]Rachel Saltz wrote for The New York Times, "“Piku,” an offbeat Hindi comedy, would have you contemplate the intestines and mortality of one Bhashkor Banerji and the actor who plays him, Amitabh Bachchan. Bhashkor’s life and conversation may revolve around his constipation and fussy hypochondria, but there’s no mistaking the scene-stealing energy that Mr. Bachchan, India’s erstwhile Angry Young Man, musters for his new role of Cranky Old Man."[92] Well known Indian critic Rajeev Masand wrote on his website, "Bachchan is pretty terrific as Bhashkor, who reminds you of that oddball uncle that you nevertheless have a soft spot for. He bickers with the maids, harrows his hapless helper, and expects that Piku stay unmarried so she can attend to him. At one point, to ward off a possible suitor, he casually mentions that his daughter isn’t a virgin; that she’s financially independent and sexually independent too. Bachchan embraces the character’s many idiosyncrasies, never once slipping into caricature while all along delivering big laughs thanks to his spot-on comic timing.[93] The Guardian summed up, "Bachchan seizes upon his cranky character part, making Bashkor as garrulously funny in his theories on caste and marriage as his system is backed-up."[94] The performance won Bachchan his fourth National Film Award for Best Actor and his third Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor. In 2016, he appeared in the women centric courtroom drama film Pink which was highly praised by critics and with an increasingly good word of mouth, was a resounding success at the domestic and overseas box office.[95][96][97][98][99] Bachchan's performance in the film received acclaim. According to Raja Sen of Rediff.com, "Amitabh Bachchan, a retired lawyer suffering from bipolar disorder, takes up cudgels on behalf of the girls, delivering courtroom blows with pugilistic grace. Like we know from Prakash Mehra movies, into each life some Bachchan must fall. The girls hang on to him with incredulous desperation, and he bats for them with all he has. At one point Meenal hangs by Bachchan's elbow, words entirely unnecessary. Bachchan towers through Pink – the way he bellows "et cetera" is alone worth having the heavy-hitter at play—but there are softer moments like one where he appears to have dozed off in court, or where he lays his head by his convalescent wife's bedside and needs his hair ruffled and his conviction validated."[100] Writing for Hindustan Times, noted film critic and author Anupama Chopra said of Bachchan's performance, "A special salute to Amitabh Bachchan, who imbues his character with a tragic majesty. Bachchan towers in every sense, but without a hint of showboating.[96] Meena Iyer of The Times of India wrote, "The performances are pitch-perfect with Bachchan leading the way.[101] Writing for NDTV, Troy Ribeiro of Indo-Asian News Service (IANS) stated, 'Amitabh Bachchan as Deepak Sehgall, the aged defence lawyer, shines as always, in a restrained, but powerful performance. His histrionics come primarily in the form of his well-modulated baritone, conveying his emotions and of course, from the well-written lines.'[102] Mike McCahill of The Guardian remarked , "Among an electric ensemble, Tapsee Pannu, Kirti Kulhari and Andrea Tariang give unwavering voice to the girls’ struggles; Amitabh Bachchan brings his moral authority to bear as their sole legal ally.[103] In 2017, he appeared in the third installment of the Sarkar film series: Ram Gopal Varma's Sarkar 3. He is also filming Thugs Of Hindostan with Aamir Khan, Katrina Kaif and Fatima Sana Shaikh which is set for release in November 2018.[104] He will co-star with Rishi Kapoor in 102 Not Out, an upcoming comedy-drama film directed by Umesh Shukla based on a Gujarati play of the same name written by Saumya Joshi.[105][106][107] This will release in May 2018 and will reunite him with Kapoor onscreen after a gap of twenty-seven years. In October 2017, it was announced that Bachchan will appear in Ayan Mukerji's Brahmastra, alongside Ranbir Kapoor and Alia Bhatt.[108] Other work Politics In 1984, Bachchan took a break from acting and briefly entered politics in support of long-time family friend, Rajiv Gandhi. He contested Allahabad's seat for the 8th Lok Sabha against H. N. Bahuguna, former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and won by one of the highest victory margins in general election history (68.2% of the vote).[109] His political career, however, was short-lived: he resigned after three years, calling politics a cesspool. The resignation followed the implication of Bachchan and his brother in the "Bofors scandal" by a newspaper, which he vowed to take to court.[110] Bachchan was eventually found not guilty of involvement in the ordeal. He was framed in the scam and falsely alleged. This was cleared by Swedish police chief Sten Lindstrom.[111] His old friend, Amar Singh, helped him during the financial crisis caused by the failure of his company, ABCL. Thereafter Bachchan started supporting the Samajwadi Party, the political party to which Amar Singh belonged. Furthermore, Jaya Bachchan joined the Samajwadi party and represented the party as an MP in the Rajya Sabha.[112] Bachchan has continued to do favours for the Samajwadi party, including appearing in advertisements and political campaigns. These activities have recently got him into trouble in the Indian courts for false claims after a previous incident of submission of legal papers by him, stating that he is a farmer.[113] A 15-year press ban against Bachchan was imposed during his peak acting years by Stardust and some of the other film magazines. In defence, Bachchan claimed to have banned the press from entering his sets until late 1989.[114] Bachchan has been accused of using the slogan "blood for blood" in the context of the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. Bachchan has denied the allegation.[115] In October 2014, Bachchan was summoned by a court in Los Angeles for "allegedly instigating violence against the Sikh community".[116][117][118][119] Television appearances Amitabh Bachchan at KBC-5 Press Meet In 2000, Bachchan hosted the first season of Kaun Banega Crorepati (KBC), the Indian adaptation of the British television game show, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?. The show was well received.[120] A second season followed in 2005 but its run was cut short by STAR Plus when Bachchan fell ill in 2006.[121] In 2009, Bachchan hosted the third season of the reality show Bigg Boss.[122] In 2010, Bachchan hosted the fourth season of KBC.[123] The fifth season started on 15 August 2011 and ended on 17 November 2011. The show became a massive hit with audiences and broke many TRP Records. CNN IBN awarded Indian of the Year- Entertainment to Team KBC and Bachchan. The Show also grabbed all the major Awards for its category.[124] Bachchan continued to host KBC until 2017. The sixth season was also hosted by Bachchan, commencing on 7 September 2012, broadcast on Sony TV and received the highest number of viewers thus far.[125] In 2014, he debuted in the fictional Sony Entertainment Television TV series titled Yudh playing the lead role of a businessman battling both his personal and professional life.[126] Voice-acting Bachchan is known for his deep, baritone voice. He has been a narrator, a playback singer, and presenter for numerous programmes.[127][128][129] Renowned film director Satyajit Ray was so impressed with Bachchan's voice that he decided to use Bachchan as the narrator in his 1977 film Shatranj Ke Khilari (The Chess Players).[130] Bachchan lent his voice as a narrator to the 2001 movie Lagaan which was a super hit.[131] In 2005, Bachchan lent his voice to the Oscar-winning French documentary March of the Penguins, directed by Luc Jacquet.[132] He also has done voice-over work for the following movies:[133][134][135] Bhuvan Shome (1969)[136] Balika Badhu (1975) Tere Mere Sapne (1996) Hello Brother (1999)[137] Lagaan (2001) Parineeta (2005) Jodhaa Akbar (2008) Swami (2007)[138] Zor Lagaa Ke...Haiya! (2009) Ra.One (2011) Kahaani (2012) Krrish 3 (2013) Mahabharat (2013)[137] Kochadaiiyaan (Hindi Version) (2014) The Ghazi Attack (2017) Humanitarian causes Bachchan speaking at a function in 2013. Bachchan has been involved with many social causes. For example, he donated ₹11 lakh (US$16,000) to clear the debts of nearly 40 beleaguered farmers in Andhra Pradesh[139] and ₹30 lakh (US$45,000) to clear the debts of some 100 Vidarbhafarmers.[140] In 2010, he donated ₹11 lakh (US$16,000) to Resul Pookutty's foundation for a medical centre at Kochi,[141][142][143] and he has given ₹2.5 lakh (US$3,700) to the family of Delhi policeman Subhash Chand Tomar who died after succumbing to injuries during a protest against gang-rape protest after the 2012 Delhi gang rape case.[144] He founded the Harivansh Rai Bachchan Memorial Trust, named after his father, in 2013. This trust, in association with Urja Foundation, will be powering 3,000 homes in India with electricity through solar energy.[145] [146] Bachchan was made a UNICEF goodwill ambassador for the polio Eradication Campaign in India in 2002.[147] In 2013, he and his family donated ₹25 lakh (US$37,000) to a charitable trust, Plan India, that works for the betterment of young girls in India.[148] He also donated ₹11 lakh (US$16,000) to the Maharashtra Police Welfare Fund in 2013.[149] Bachchan was the face of the 'Save Our Tigers' campaign that promoted the importance of tiger conservation in India.[150] He supported the campaign by PETA in India to free Sunder, a 14-year-old elephant who was chained and tortured in a temple in Kolhapur, Maharashtra.[151] In 2014, it was announced that he had recorded his voice and lent his image to the Hindi and English language versions of the TeachAIDS software, an international HIV/AIDS prevention education tool developed at Stanford University.[152] Business investments Amitabh Bachchan has invested in many upcoming business ventures. In 2013, he bought a 10% stake in Just Dial from which he made a gain of 4600 percent. He holds a 3.4% equity in Stampede Capital, a financial technology firm specializing in cloud computing for financial markets. The Bachchan family also bought shares worth $252,000 in Meridian Tech, a consulting company in U.S. Recently they made their first overseas investment in Ziddu.com, a cloud based content distribution platform.[150][153] Bachchan was named in the Panama Papers and Paradise Papers, leaked confidential documents relating to offshore investment.[154][155] Awards and honours Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Amitabh Bachchan Amitabh Bachchan with the Olympic flame in London on 27 July 2012 Apart from National Film Awards, Filmfare Awards and other competitive awards which Bachchan won for his performances throughout the years, he has been awarded several honours for his achievements in the Indian film industry. In 1991, he became the first artist to receive the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award, which was established in the name of Raj Kapoor. Bachchan was crowned as Superstar of the Millennium in 2000 at the Filmfare Awards. In 1999, Bachchan was voted the "greatest star of stage or screen" in a BBC Your Millennium online poll. The organisation noted that "Many people in the western world will not have heard of [him] ... [but it] is a reflection of the huge popularity of Indian films."[156] In 2001, he was honoured with the Actor of the Century award at the Alexandria International Film Festival in Egypt in recognition of his contribution to the world of cinema.[157] Many other honours for his achievements were conferred upon him at several International Film Festivals, including the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 2010 Asian Film Awards.[158] In June 2000, he became the first living Asian to have been modeled in wax at London's Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.[159]Another statue was installed in New York in 2009,[160] Hong Kong in 2011,[161] Bangkok in 2011,[162] Washington, DC in 2012,[163] and Delhi, in 2017.[164] In 2003, he was conferred with the Honorary Citizenship of the French town of Deauville.[165] The Government of India awarded him with the Padma Shri in 1984, the Padma Bhushan in 2001 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2015. France's highest civilian honour, the Knight of the Legion of Honour, was conferred upon him by the French Government in 2007 for his "exceptional career in the world of cinema and beyond".[166] On 27 July 2012, Bachchan carried the Olympic torch during the last leg of its relay in London's Southwark.[167] Several books have been written about Bachchan. Amitabh Bachchan: the Legend was published in 1999,[168] To be or not to be: Amitabh Bachchan in 2004,[169] AB: The Legend (A Photographer's Tribute) in 2006,[170] Amitabh Bachchan: Ek Jeevit Kimvadanti in 2006,[171] Amitabh: The Making of a Superstar in 2006,[172] Looking for the Big B: Bollywood, Bachchan and Me in 2007[173] and Bachchanalia in 2009.[174] Bachchan himself wrote a book in 2002: Soul Curry for you and me – An Empowering Philosophy That Can Enrich Your Life.[175] In the early 80s, Bachchan authorised the use of his likeness for the comic book character Supremo in a series titled The Adventures of Amitabh Bachchan.[176] In May 2014, La Trobe Universityin Australia named a Scholarship after Bachchan.[177] He was named "Hottest Vegetarian" by PETA India in 2012.[178] He won the title of "Asia's Sexiest Vegetarian" in a contest poll run by PETA Asia.[179] Memorials In Ahallabad, the Amitabh Bachchan Sports Complex and Amitabh Bachchan Road are named after him.[180][181] A government senior secondary school in Saifai, Etawah is called Amitabh Bachchan Government Inter College.[182][183][184] There is a temple in Kolkata, where Amitabh is worshipped as a God.[185][186] Selected filmography Main article: Amitabh Bachchan filmography Year Film Role Notes 1971 Anand Dr. Bhaskar Bannerjee (Babu Moshai) Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor 1973 Zanjeer Inspector Vijay Khanna Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor Namak Haraam Vikram (Vicky) Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor 1975 Deewaar Vijay Verma (based on Haji Mastan) Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor Sholay Jai (Jaidev) Voted as the greatest Hindi film.[187][188] 1977 Amar Akbar Anthony Anthony Gonsalves Filmfare Award for Best Actor 1978 Don Don / Vijay Filmfare Award for Best Actor Muqaddar Ka Sikandar Sikandar Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor Trishul Vijay Kumar Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor 1980 Shaan Vijay Kumar 1983 Coolie Iqbal A. Khan Highest-grossing Indian film of 1983[189] 1990 Agneepath Vijay Deenanath Chauhan National Film Award for Best Actor 1991 Hum Tiger / Shekhar Filmfare Award for Best Actor 2000 Mohabbatein Narayan Shankar Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor 2001 Aks Manu Verma Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor 2005 Black Debraj Sahani National Film Award for Best Actor Filmfare Award for Best Actor Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor 2009 Paa Auro National Film Award for Best Actor Filmfare Award for Best Actor 2015 Piku Bhashkor Banerjee National Film Award for Best Actor Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor Shashi Kapoor (born as Balbir Prithviraj Kapoor; 18 March 1938 – 4 December 2017[1]) was an Indian film actor and producer.[2] He appeared in 168 films which includes large number of Hindi films as well as in various English-language films, notably the films produced by Merchant-Ivory.[3] He was also a film director and assistant director in the Hindi film industry.[4] Shashi Kapoor was a member of the Kapoor family, a film dynasty in India's Bollywood cinema. Kapoor was born in Calcutta[5] (now Kolkata) during the British Raj. He was the third and youngest son of Prithviraj Kapoor, the younger brother of Raj Kapoor and Shammi Kapoor, the widower of Jennifer Kendal (sister of actress Felicity Kendal), and the father of Karan Kapoor, Kunal Kapoor and Sanjana Kapoor. In 2011, he was honoured with the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India for his contributions to Art-Cinema.[6] In 2015, he was awarded the 2014 Dadasaheb Phalke Award, making him the third member of his family to receive the highest award in Indian Cinema after Prithviraj Kapoor and Raj Kapoor.[7] He was admitted for a reported chest infection[8] at Kokilaben Hospital, Mumbai on 3 December 2017[9][10][11] and died on 4 December 2017 due to prolonged liver cirrhosis.[12][11] Contents  [hide]  1 Career 1.1 Child actor 1.2 Early career (1960s) 1.3 1970s and 1980s 1.4 Later career (1987–1998) 2 Personal life 2.1 Death 3 Legacy 4 Awards 4.1 Civilian Award 4.2 National Film Awards 4.3 Filmfare Awards 4.4 Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards 4.5 Other awards 5 Honours and recognitions 6 Filmography 6.1 Actor 7 Works 8 Further reading 9 References 10 External links Career[edit] Child actor[edit] Shashi Kapoor acted in plays, directed and produced by his father Prithviraj Kapoor, while traveling with Prithvi Theatres. He started acting in films as a child in the late 1940s under the name of Shashiraj as there was another actor by the same name who used to act in mythological films as a child artiste. His best-known performances as a child actor were in Aag (1948) and Awaara (1951), where he played the younger version of the characters played by his older brother Raj Kapoor and in Sangram(1950), where he played the younger version of Ashok Kumar and Dana Paani (1953) where he acted with Bharat Bhushan. He worked in four Hindi films as a child artiste from 1948 to 1954. Early career (1960s)[edit] Kapoor got an opportunity to work as an assistant director in the film Post Box 999, the debut film of Sunil Dutt, and worked as an assistant director to Ravindra Davein Guest House (1959), which was followed by movies such as Dulha Dulhan and Shriman Satyawadi, where Raj Kapoor was the lead hero. Shashi Kapoor made his debut as a leading man in the 1961 film Dharmputra and went on to appear in 116 Hindi films, including 61 films as the solo lead hero and 55 multi star-cast films, 21 films as supporting actor and special appearances in 7 films. He was a very popular actor in Bollywood during the 60s, 70s and until the mid-80s. Kapoor's early films, Dharmputra, Prem Patra and Char Diwari, were in Hindi, which were not successful commercially. Since 1961, he started acting in English language films, which include The Householder and Shakespeare-Wallah. He was one of India's first actors to go international.[13] Actress Nanda, who was an established star at her time,[citation needed] signed 8 Hindi films with Kapoor, as she believed that he could deliver good performances.[citation needed] Their first two films as a pair were the critically acclaimed romantic film Char Diwari (1961) and Mehndi Lagi Mere Haath (1962).[14] In the 1960s, Kapoor acted in several romantic films opposite Nanda, including Mohabbat Isko Kahete Hain (1965), Jab Jab Phool Khile (1965), Neend Hamari Khwab Tumhare (1966), Raja Saab (1969) and Rootha Na Karo (1970).[15] In an interview in the 1990s, Kapoor declared that Nanda was his favorite actress and that he regarded her as one of his mentors.[16] In another interview, Nanda stated that Shashi Kapoor was her favorite actor.[citation needed] 1970s and 1980s[edit] Shashi Kapoor formed on screen pairs with Raakhee, Sharmila Tagore and Zeenat Aman from the late sixties to the mid eighties. He also acted opposite actresses Hema Malini, Parveen Babi, and Moushumi Chatterjee in many films. After their first movie together Sharmelee became a blockbuster, Raakhee was frequently paired with him, and they acted in hit films such as Jaanwar Aur Insaan (1972), Kabhi Kabhie (1976), Baseraa (1981), the critically acclaimed Trishna (1978), however, Doosara Aadmi (1977), Bandhan Kuchchey Dhaagon Ka (1983), Bandh Honth (1984), and Zameen Aasmaan (1985) were flops.[17] He starred with Sharmila Tagore in hits such as Waqt (1965), Aamne Samne (1967), Suhana Safar (1970), Aa Gale Lag Jaa (1973), Vachan (1974),[18] Paap Aur Punya (1974), Swati (1986), the critically acclaimed New Delhi Times (1985), which fetched Kapoor a National Film Award for Best Actor in 1986,[19] Other films with Sharmila, such as My Love(1970), Anari (1975), Gehri Chot (1983), Maa Beti (1986) and Ghar Bazar (1998) were not successful. With Zeenat Aman, he worked in hit films such as Chori Mera Kaam (1975), Deewaangee (1976), Roti Kapda Aur Makan (1974), Heeralal Pannalal (1978), Pakhandi (1984), Bhavani Junction (1985), Satyam Shivam Sundaram(1978) and the pair witnessed flops such as Krodhi (1981), Vakil Babu (1982) and Bandhan Kuchchey Dhaagon Ka (1983). He did 10 films opposite Hema Malini. As a pair, Shashi and Hema Malini had 6 hits such as Abhinetri, Aap Beati, Trishul, Aandhi Toofan, Apna Khoon, Maan Gaye Ustaad and 4 flops - Jahan Pyar Mile, Naach Uthe Sansaar, Do Aur Do Paanch and Anjaam. Kapoor's other successful movies include Haseena Maan Jayegi (1968) and Ek Shriman Ek Shrimati (1969), both with Babita, Kanyadan (1968) and Pyar Ka Mausam (1969), both opposite Asha Parekh, Chor Machaye Shor opposite Mumtaz, Abhinetri (1970), Aap Beati (1976) and Maan Gaye Ustaad (1981), with Hema Malini, Bezubaan with Reena Roy, Chakkar Pe Chakkar (1976), Kali Ghata (1980), Kalyug (1981), Vijeta (1982) and Pyaar Ki Jeet (1987) all with Rekha and Bepanaah (1985) with Rati Agnihotri. Other films include multi-starrers such as Dil Ne Pukara (1967), Trishul (1978), Neeyat (1980), Aandhi Toofan (1985), Naina(1973), Phaansi (1978), Salaakhen (1975), Fakira (1976), and Junoon (1978).[20] He also worked with Rajesh Khanna in Prem Kahani (1975). Shashi Kapoor as a child artist had worked with Ashok Kumar in blockbusters such as Sangram (1950) and Samadhi (1950) where Ashok Kumar was the solo lead hero, which were huge hits at box office. He played Ashok Kumar's younger brother in Benazir where Ashok Kumar was the main male lead hero. Ashok Kumar played the supporting actor in 7 films with Shashi as the lead hero from 1975-1985 of which Chori Mera Kaam, Aap Baeti, Shankar Dada, Apna Khoon and Maan Gaye Ustaad became hits, while Hira Aur Paththar and Do Musafir became flops. He did two double role films, both of which were box-office hits - Haseena Maan Jayegi and Shankar Dada. Shashi did a song number in Shankar Dada, a box-office hit, dressed up as a female. From the 1970s to early 1980s, Kapoor starred alongside Pran in 9 films which include Biradari, Chori Mera Kaam, Phaansi, Shankar Dada, Chakkar Pe Chakkar, Rahu Ketu and Maan Gaye Ustaad.[21] Earlier, Shashi had worked as child artists with Pran in Sanskar. He made a popular pairing with Amitabh Bachchan and the two co-starred in a total of 12 films: Roti Kapda Aur Makaan (1974), Deewaar (1975), Kabhi Kabhie (1976), Trishul (1978), Kaala Patthar (1979), Suhaag (1979) and Namak Halaal (1982) were hits, while Immaan Dharam (1977), Do Aur Do Paanch (1980), Shaan (1980), Silsila (1981) and Akayla (1991) were flops.[22] He is particularly famous for his role in Deewaar (1975), a film written by Salim-Javed about two brothers on opposing sides of the law, with Kapoor playing a cop. One of his lines in the film, "Mere paas Maa hai" ("I have mother"), is a famous phrase that has become part of Indian popular culture.[23] Shashi Kapoor was regularly cast with Sanjeev Kumar also in films such as Mukti (1977), Trishul (1978), Muqaddar (1978), Swayamvar (1980), Sawaal (1982) and Pakhandi (1984). After his wife's death in 1984, he started becoming overweight, but he was given his comeback role as character artiste by Rajesh Khanna in Alag Alag, a 1985 film. He was also known internationally for starring in British and American films, notably Merchant Ivory productions run by Ismail Merchant and James Ivory, such as The Householder (1963), Shakespeare Wallah (1965) (opposite his sister-in-law Felicity Kendal), Bombay Talkie (1970) and Heat and Dust (1982), in which he co-starred with his wife Jennifer Kendal, The Deceivers (1988) and Side Streets (1998). He also starred in other British and American films, such as Pretty Polly (A Matter Of Innocence) (1967) opposite Hayley Mills, Siddhartha (1972), Sammy and Rosie Get Laid (1987) and Muhafiz (1994). James Ivory directed Kapoor in the first Merchant Ivory production The Householder, then in Shakespeare-Wallah, Bombay Talkie and Heat and Dust, while Ismail Merchant directed him in In Custody(1993).[24] He was the first Indian actor to work extensively in Hollywood films and British films.[citation needed] In 1978, he set up his production house, Film Valas, which produced critically acclaimed films such as Junoon (1978), Kalyug (1981), 36 Chowringhee Lane (1981), Vijeta (1982) and Utsav (1984).[25] In 1991, he produced and directed a fantasy film titled Ajooba, which had his frequent co-star Amitabh Bachchan and nephew Rishi Kapoor in the lead.[26][27] Shashi Kapoor was 2nd highest paid Hindi actor, sharing the spot with Dev Anand from 1970–75, and the 3rd third highest paid Hindi actor, sharing space with Vinod Khanna from 1976-82.The highest paid Indian actor was Rajesh Khanna from 1970-1987. Shashi was paid more than co-actors Vinod Khanna, Amitabh Bachchan, Jeetendra, Rishi Kapoor and Randhir Kapoor in multi-starrer films. However, Sanjeev Kumar, Pran and Dharmendra were paid at same rate as Shashi. Among all leading actors, only Rajesh Khanna was paid more than Shashi in the two films they acted together – Prem Kahani and Alag Alag.[28] Shashi regarded Rajesh Khanna and Sanjeev Kumar as the most versatile actors of Hindi Cinema from among his contemporaries and he regarded these two along-with his seniors Pran and Ashok Kumar from 1930-2000 as the most versatile from Hindi Cinema.[29] He respected M G Ramachandran and Sivaji Ganesan among the Tamil film actors for their body of work. He believed Amitabh did mostly angry young man or multi-star films from 1975 to 1999 and turned versatile only after 2000. He regarded Nanda, Pran, Dharmendra, Dev Anand, Ismail Merchant, Rajesh Khanna and Sanjeev Kumar as his closest friends from the industry since the beginning of his career and maintained cordial relations with Amitabh Bachchan, Yash Chopra, MGR, Kishore Kumar, Mohammed Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar and most of his co-stars.[30] In the whole of the Kapoor clan, Shashi Kapoor has been the solo hero more times (61 films) and also as a lead protagonist in more Hindi films (116) than his nephews Rishi Kapoor, Randhir Kapoor and Rajiv and even more than his brothers Raj Kapoor, Shammi Kapoor and more than his grand-nephews and grand-nieces.[31] Later career (1987–1998)[edit] He accepted very few roles as a character actor in films since 1987. He acted with Pierce Brosnan in The Deceivers (1988).[32] He also won a National (special jury) Award for his performance in the 1993 film In Custody and played the Rajah in the TV adaptation of Gulliver's Travels (1996). In 1998, he retired from acting after his final film appearances in Jinnah and Side Streets. He was seen in the limelight at the Shashi Kapoor Film Festival held in Muscat, Oman (September 2007). At the 55th Annual Filmfare Awards in 2010, Shashi Kapoor received the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award.[33] Personal life[edit] Shashi Kapoor with daughter Sanjana in 2010 Kapoor attended Don Bosco High School in Matunga, Mumbai. He met English actress Jennifer Kendal in Calcutta in 1956 while both were working for their respective theatre groups. Shashi was both assistant stage manager as well as an actor for his father's theatre group, Prithvi Theatre. Geoffrey Kendal's Shakespearean group was also present at the same time in Calcutta and Jennifer was Geoffrey's daughter. After their subsequent meeting, the couple fell in love and after facing initial opposition from the Kendals and support from sister-in-law Geeta Bali, they got married in July 1958.[34] They acted in a number of films together, most notably in Merchant Ivory productions. They had three children: Kunal Kapoor, Karan Kapoorand Sanjana Kapoor. Jennifer and Shashi established Prithvi Theatre on 5 November 1978 in Mumbai.[35] Jennifer died of cancer in 1984 which shattered him. After losing her to cancer, Shashi Kapoor fell into a deep depression that he never recovered from.[36] The English actress Felicity Kendal is his sister-in-law. Kapoor's children, for a short while, became Hindi film actors but their European looks and accented Hindi prevented them from having successful careers. His eldest son Kunal is married to director Ramesh Sippy's daughter. Kunal moved on to ad film direction and established his production house Adfilm-Valas which is today extremely successful.[37] Shashi's daughter Sanjana, is a theatre personality and married to wildlife conservationist Valmik Thapar.[38] They have a son named Hamir. Shashi's younger son Karan became successful in modeling and later settled down in London. He is an accomplished photographer.[39] Death[edit] Kapoor was admitted at the Kokilaben Hospital, Versova, Mumbai, on December 4, 2017, for a chest infection,[8] where he reportedly died due to liver cirrhosis[11][12] at the age of 79 at 5.20 pm, according to the Kokilaben Hospital as confirmed to the Press Trust of India (PTI).[11] His nephew Randhir Kapoor confirmed the news. Kapoor is survived by two sons, Kunal and Karan, and a daughter, Sanjana, who takes care of the Prithvi Theatre.[40] Legacy[edit] Kapoor and fellow actor Sridevi who died on February 24, 2018, were honored in memoriam at 90th Academy Awards ceremony. [41] Awards[edit] Civilian Award[edit] 2011 – Padma Bhushan by the Government of India[6] National Film Awards[edit] Shashi Kapoor with son Kunal Kapoor and daughter Sanjana Kapoorreceiving Dadasaheb Phalke Awardfrom Union Minister Arun Jaitley in May 2015 2015 – Dadasaheb Phalke Award[42] Winner 1994 – National Film Award – Special Jury Award / Special Mention (Feature Film) for Muhafiz (1993) 1986 – National Film Award for Best Actor for New Delhi Times (1986) 1979 – National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi (as Producer) for Junoon (1978) Filmfare Awards[edit] 1976 – Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor for Deewaar (1975) 2010 – Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards[edit] BFJA Award for Best Actor 1988 New Delhi Times[43] – Vikas Pande 1965 Jab Jab Phool Khile[44] – Raja Other awards[edit] 2011 – Mohammed Rafi Award[45] Lifetime Achievement Award 2009 – The 7th Pune International Film Festival (PIFF)[46] 2009 – The 11th Mumbai Film Festival (MFF)[47][48] Honours and recognitions[edit] He was honoured by Walk of the Stars as his handprint was preserved for posterity at Bandra bandstand in Mumbai in November 2013. ** Trishul (Hindi: त्रिशूल, English: Trident) is a 1978 Indian drama film, written by Salim-Javed, directed by Yash Chopra, and produced by Gulshan Rai. It features music by Mohammed Zahur Khayyam, with lyrics by Sahir Ludhianvi. The film was a "Super Hit" at the box office, and one of the top grossers of 1978, along with Muqaddar Ka Sikandar and Don.[2] The film inspired the Tamil Kamal Hassan starrer, Kadal Meengal, and the Malayalam film Meen starring Madhu and Jayan. The movie has been remade in Tamil as Mr. Bharath and in Telugu as Mr. Bharath starring Shoban Babu. The film focuses on the three intertwined stories of Amitabh, Sanjeev, and Shashi.[3] Contents  [hide]  1 Plot 2 Cast 3 Credits 4 Soundtrack 5 Awards and nominations 6 Legacy 7 In popular culture 8 References 9 External links Plot[edit] Raj Kumar Gupta (Sanjeev Kumar) gives up his first love Shanti (Waheeda Rehman) to marry a wealthy heiress Kamini (Gita Siddharth) who is the daughter of Seth Dindayal. Shanti comes by to wish him success on his marriage with the news that she is carrying his child and moving away. She gives birth to a boy and names him Vijay. She raises him to adulthood. After she dies, Vijay (Amitabh Bachchan) comes to Delhi to take revenge by destroying his father's business and family connections. Shekhar (Shashi Kapoor) and Kusum (Poonam Dhillon) are Vijay's half-siblings who are caught in the crossfire of Vijay's revenge. Vijay also crosses paths with Geeta (Raakhee), the devoted secretary of Gupta and another company's general manager Sheetal (Hema Malini) who is also the daughter of the owner of the company. When Geeta is fired Vijay hires her. He tries to create differences between Shekhar and Sheetal. Vijay also takes all the good deals which resulted in losses for Raj. He even encourages Kusum to marry Ravi (Sachin) against her father's wishes which enrages Shekhar and he ends up fighting with Vijay. But Geeta comes and tells the truth. Shekhar and Kusum leave Raj. Raj in anger tells Balwant (Prem Chopra) to kill Vijay. Later Vijay comes down and tells him that he is Raj's son and leaves. Raj tries to stop Balwant but he had already left and kidnapped Ravi in order to get to Vijay. Vijay, with the assistance of Shekhar and Raj, rescues Ravi. Balwant aims at Vijay but Raj comes in between and thus Raj is shot in the process by Balwant. Before dying Raj asks for forgiveness. Vijay forgives him and unites with the family. In addition, Vijay changes the name of his company from Shanti Constructions to Shanti-Raj Constructions. Cast[edit] Amitabh Bachchan as Vijay Kumar Sanjeev Kumar as Raj Kumar Gupta / R. K. Gupta Shashi Kapoor as Shekhar Gupta Raakhee as Geeta Hema Malini as Sheetal Verma Poonam Dhillon as Kusum Gupta / Babli Sachin as Ravi Waheeda Rehman as Shanti (Special Appearance) Prem Chopra as Balwant Rai Iftekhar as P.L. Verma Gita Siddharth as Kamini Gupta Manmohan Krishna as Seth Dindayal Yunus Parvez as Bhandari Mohan Sherry as Gangoo M. B. Shetty as Madhav Singh Manik Irani as Henchman Credits[edit] Director – Yash Chopra Producer – Gulshan Rai Production company – Trimurti Films Writer – Salim-Javed Art director – Desh Mukherjee Chief assistant director – Ramesh Talwar Editor – B. Mangeshkar Lyrics – Sahir Ludhianvi Singers – K. J. Yesudas, Kishore Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar, Nitin Mukesh & Pamela Chopra Soundtrack[edit] All the songs[4] were composed by Khayyam and lyrics were penned by Sahir Ludhianvi. The soundtrack for this movie is credited for bringing the three legends of Indian film music K. J. Yesudas, Kishore Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar together in a single song "Mohabbat Bade Kaam Ki Cheez Hai". # Title Singer(s) Duration 1 "Gapoochi Gapoochi Gam Gam" Lata Mangeshkar, Nitin Mukesh 04:09 2 "Ja Ri Behna Ja" Yesudas, Pamela Chopra, Kishore Kumar 03:05 3 "Jo Ho Yaar Apna" Lata Mangeshkar, Kishore Kumar 03:29 4 "Mohabbat Bade Kam Ki" Lata Mangeshkar, Yesudas, Kishore Kumar 04:38 5 "Janeman Tum Kamal Karte Ho" Lata Mangeshkar, Kishore Kumar 05:37 6 "Aap Ki Maheki Hui Zulf Ko" Lata Mangeshkar, Yesudas 03:09 7 "Tu Mere Saath Rahega" Lata Mangeshkar 06:29 Awards and nominations[edit] 26th Filmfare Awards Nominations Best Film - Gulshan Rai Best Director - Yash Chopra Best Actor - Amitabh Bachchan Best Actress - Raakhee Best Supporting Actor - Sanjeev Kumar Best Story - Salim-Javed Legacy[edit] Ziya Us Salam of The Hindu in his review of Yeh Hai Jalwa (2002) called it "a spoof of Trishul" In popular culture[edit] The movie was heavily referenced in Anurag Kashyap's 2012 crime film Gangs of Wasseypur.[5] A Sinhala Film with an almost similar story line was made with title "Hello Shyama" by Director M.S.Anandan, starring Gamini Fonseka in the role of Sanjeev and Shyama Anandan, daughter of M S Anandan' in the role played by Amitabh Bachchan. .     ebay3197

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