1960 Israel "LA DOLCE VITA" Italian FELLINI Hebrew MOVIE Film POSTER Jewish RARE

1960 Israel

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eBay DESCRIPTION : Here for sale is an EXCEPTIONALY RARE and ORIGINAL Judaica Jewish POSTER for the ISRAEL 1960 PREMIERE of FELLINI's legendary ITALIAN awards winning film " LA DOLCE VITA " . Starring Marcello Mastroianni , Anouk Aimée and Anita Ekberg to name only a few , With the unforgetable NINO ROTA music. The projection took place in the small rural town of NATHANYA in ISRAEL.  The cinema-movie hall " CINEMA SHARON" , A local Israeli version of "Cinema Paradiso" was printing manualy its own posters , And thus you can be certain that this surviving copy is ONE OF ITS KIND.  Fully DATED 1960 . Text in HEBREW and ENGLISH  . Please note : This is NOT a re-release poster but PREMIERE - FIRST RELEASE projection of the film . The ISRAELI distributors of the film have given it an entirely new HEBREW text which is quite archaic and amusing .They have also named it with a brand new Hebrew name " The SWEET LIFE". Judaica - Israeli related artifact. Size around 24" x 36" ( Not accurate ) . Printed in red and blue . The condition is good . 2 folds . Very slightly ( Almost unseen ) creased . One central stain. Should be look great beneath a framed glass. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. AUTHENTICITY : The POSTER is fully guaranteed ORIGINAL from 1960 ( dated ) , It is NOT a reproduction or a recently made reprint or an immitation , It holds a with life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY.   PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal .SHIPPMENT : SHIPP worldwide via registered airmail is $18  . Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. MORE DETAILS :  (Italian: La Dolce Vita (Italian pronunciation: [la ˈdoltʃe ˈviːta]; Italian for "the sweet life" or "the good life")[1] is a 1960 Italian dramafilm directed and co-written by Federico Fellini. The film follows Marcello Rubini (Marcello Mastroianni), a journalist writing for gossip magazines, over seven days and nights on his journey through the "sweet life" of Rome in a fruitless search for love and happiness. La Dolce Vita won the Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) at the 1960 Cannes Film Festival[2] and the Oscar for Best Costumes.[3] The film was a massive box office hit in Europe with 13,617,148 admissions in Italy and 2,956,094 admissions in France.[4] Contents  [hide]  1 Plot 1.1 Prologue 1.2 Episode 1 1.3 Episode 2 1.4 Episode 3a 1.5 Episode 4 1.6 Episode 3b 1.7 Intermezzo 1.8 Episode 5 1.9 Episode 6 1.10 Episode 3c 1.11 Episode 7 1.12 Epilogue 2 Cast 3 Production 3.1 Costumes 3.2 Writing 3.3 Filming 3.3.1 Paparazzo 4 Themes, motifs and structure 4.1 Seven episodes 4.2 An aesthetic of disparity 5 Critical reception 5.1 Censorship 5.2 Awards and recognition 6 In popular culture 7 Notes 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links Plot[edit] Based on the most common interpretation of the storyline,[5] the film can be divided into a prologue, seven major episodes interrupted by an intermezzo, and an epilogue (see also Structure, below). If the evenings of each episode were joined with the morning of the respective preceding episode together as a day, they would form seven consecutive days, which may not necessarily be the case.[clarification needed] Prologue[edit] 1st Day Sequence: A helicopter transports a statue of Christ over an ancient Roman aqueduct outside Rome while a second, Marcello Rubini's news helicopter, follows it into the city. The news helicopter is momentarily sidetracked by a group of bikini-clad women sunbathing on the rooftop of a high-rise apartment building. Hovering above, Marcello uses gestures to elicit phone numbers from them but fails in his attempt then shrugs and continues on following the statue into Saint Peter's Square. Episode 1[edit] 1st Night Sequence: Marcello meets Maddalena by chance in an exclusive nightclub. A beautiful and wealthy heiress, Maddalena is tired of Rome and constantly in search of new sensations while Marcello finds Rome suits him as a jungle he can hide in. They make love in the bedroom of a prostitute to whom they had given a ride home in Maddalena’s Cadillac. 1st Dawn Sequence: Marcello returns to his apartment at dawn to find that his fiancée, Emma, has overdosed. On the way to the hospital, he declares his everlasting love to her and again as she lies in a semiconscious state in the emergency room. While waiting frantically for her recovery, however, he tries to make a phone call to Maddalena. Episode 2[edit] 2nd Day Sequence: That day, he goes on assignment for the arrival of Sylvia, a famous Swedish-American actress, at Ciampino airport where she is met by a horde of news reporters. During Sylvia's press conference, Marcello calls home to ensure Emma has taken her medication while reassuring her that he is not alone with Sylvia. After the film star confidently replies to the barrage of journalists' questions, her boyfriend Robert (Lex Barker) enters the room late and drunk. To Sylvia's producer, Marcello casually recommends that Sylvia be taken on a tour of St Peter's. Inside St Peter's dome, a news reporter complains that Sylvia is "an elevator" because none of them can match her energetic climb up the numerous flights of stairs. Inspired, Marcello maneuvers forward to be alone with her when they finally reach the balcony overlooking the Vatican. 2nd Night Sequence: That evening, the infatuated Marcello dances with Sylvia in the Baths of Caracalla. Sylvia's natural sensuality triggers raucous partying while Robert, her bored fiancé, draws caricatures and reads a newspaper. His humiliating remark to her causes Sylvia to leave the group, eagerly followed by Marcello and his paparazzi colleagues. Finding themselves alone, Marcello and Sylvia spend the rest of the evening in the alleys of Rome where they wade into the Trevi Fountain. 2nd Dawn Sequence: Like a magic spell that has suddenly been broken, dawn arrives at the very moment Sylvia playfully "anoints" Marcello's head with fountain water. They drive back to Sylvia's hotel to find an enraged Robert waiting for her in his car. Robert slaps Sylvia, orders her to go to bed, and then assaults Marcello who takes it in stride. Episode 3a[edit] 3rd Day Sequence: Marcello meets Steiner, his distinguished intellectual friend, inside a church playing Bach on the organ. Steiner shows off his book of Sanskritgrammar. Episode 4[edit] 4th Day Sequence: Late afternoon, Marcello, his photographer friend Paparazzo, and Emma drive to the outskirts of Rome to cover the story of the purported sighting of the Madonna by two children. Although the Catholic Church is officially skeptical, a huge crowd of devotees and reporters gathers at the site. 3rd Night Sequence: That night, the event is broadcast over Italian radio and television. Blindly following the two children from corner to corner in a downpour, the crowd tears a small tree apart for its branches and leaves said to have sheltered the Madonna. Meanwhile, Emma prays to the Virgin Mary to be given sole possession of Marcello's heart. 3rd Dawn Sequence: The gathering ends at dawn with the crowd mourning a sick child, a pilgrim brought by his mother to be healed, but trampled to death in the melee. Episode 3b[edit] 4th Night Sequence: One evening, Marcello and Emma attend a gathering at Steiner’s luxurious home where they are introduced to a group of intellectuals who recite poetry, strum the guitar, offer philosophical ideas, and listen to sounds of nature recorded on tape. An American woman, whose poetry Marcello has read and admired, recommends that Marcello avoid the "prisons" of commitment: "Stay free, available, like me. Never get married. Never choose. Even in love, it's better to be chosen." Emma appears enchanted with Steiner's home and children, telling Marcello that one day he will have a home like Steiner's. Outside on the terrace, Marcello confesses to Steiner his admiration for all he stands for, but Steiner admits he is torn between the security that a materialistic life affords and his longing for a more spiritual albeit insecure way of life. Steiner philosophizes about the need for love in the world and fears what his children may grow up to face one day. Intermezzo[edit] 5th Day Sequence: Marcello spends the afternoon working on his novel at a seaside restaurant where he meets Paola, a young waitress from Perugia playing Perez Prado's cha-cha Patricia on the jukebox and then humming its tune. He asks her if she has a boyfriend, then describes her as an angel in Umbrian paintings. Episode 5[edit] 5th Night Sequence: Marcello meets his father (Annibale Ninchi) visiting Rome on the Via Veneto. With Paparazzo, they go to the Cha-Cha-Cha Club where Marcello introduces his father to Fanny, a beautiful dancer and one of his past girlfriends (he had promised to get her picture in the paper, but failed to do it). Fanny takes a liking to his father. Marcello tells Paparazzo that as a child he had never seen much of his father, who would spend weeks away from home. Fanny invites Marcello’s father back to her flat, and two other dancers invite the two younger men to go with them. Marcello leaves the others when they get to the dancers' neighborhood. Fanny comes out of her house, upset that Marcello's father has become ill. 4th Dawn Sequence: Marcello's father has suffered what seems to be a mild heart attack. Marcello wants him to stay with him in Rome so they can get to know each other, but his father, weakened, wants to go home and gets in a taxi to catch the first train home. He leaves Marcello forlorn, on the street, watching the taxi leave. Episode 6[edit] 6th Night Sequence: Marcello, Nico, and other friends met on the Via Veneto are driven to a castle owned by aristocrats at Bassano di Sutri outside Rome. There is already a party long in progress, and the party-goers are bleary-eyed and intoxicated. By chance, Marcello meets Maddalena again. The two of them explore a suite of ruins annexed to the castle. Maddalena seats Marcello in a vast room and then closets herself in another room connected by an echo chamber. As a disembodied voice, Maddalena asks him to marry her; Marcello professes his love for her, avoiding answering her proposal. Another man kisses and embraces Maddalena, who loses interest in Marcello. He rejoins the group, and eventually spends the night with Jane, an American artist and heiress. 5th Dawn Sequence: Burnt out and bleary-eyed, the group returns at dawn to the main section of the castle, to be met by the matriarch of the castle, who is on her way to mass, accompanied by priests in a procession. Episode 3c[edit] 7th Night Sequence: Marcello and Emma are alone in his sports car on an isolated road. Emma starts an argument by professing her love, and tries to get out of the car; Marcello pleads with her not to get out. Emma says that Marcello will never find another woman who loves him the way she does. Marcello becomes enraged, telling her that he cannot live with her smothering, maternal love. He now wants her to get out of the car, but she refuses. With some violence (a bite from her and a slap from him), he throws her out of the car and drives off, leaving her alone on a deserted road at night. Hours later, Emma hears his car approaching as she picks flowers by the roadside. She gets into the car with neither of them saying a word. 6th Dawn Sequence: Marcello and Emma are asleep in bed, tenderly intertwined; Marcello receives a phone call. He rushes to the Steiners' apartment and learns that Steiner has killed his two children and himself. 6th Day Sequence: After waiting with the police for Steiner’s wife to return home, he meets her outside to break the terrible news while paparazzi swarm around her snapping pictures. Episode 7[edit] 6th Night Sequence: An unspecified amount of time later, an older Marcello—now with gray in his hair—and a group of partygoers break into a Fregene beach house owned by Riccardo, a friend of Marcello's. Many of the men are homosexual. To celebrate her recent divorce from Riccardo, Nadia performs a striptease to Perez Prado's cha-cha Patricia. The drunken Marcello attempts to provoke the other partygoers into an orgy. Due to their inebriated states, however, the party descends into mayhem with Marcello throwing pillow feathers around the room as he rides a young woman crawling on her hands and knees. Riccardo shows up at the house and angrily tells the partiers to leave. Epilogue[edit] 7th Dawn Sequence: The party proceeds to the beach at dawn where they find a modern-day leviathan, a bloated, stingray-like creature, caught in the fishermen's nets.[a] In his stupor, Marcello comments on how its eyes stare even in death. 7th Day Sequence: Paola, the adolescent waitress from the seaside restaurant in Fregene, calls to Marcello from across an estuary but the words they exchange are lost on the wind, drowned out by the crash of the waves. He signals his inability to understand what she is saying or interpret her gestures. He shrugs and returns to the partygoers; one of the women joins him and they hold hands as they walk away from the beach. In a long final close-up, Paola waves to Marcello then stands watching him with an enigmatic smile. Cast[edit] Marcello Mastroianni as Marcello Rubini Anita Ekberg as Sylvia Anouk Aimée as Maddalena Yvonne Furneaux as Emma Lex Barker as Robert, Sylvia's fiancé. Magali Noël as Fanny Alain Cuny as Steiner Nadia Gray as Nadia Annibale Ninchi as Marcello's father Walter Santesso as Paparazzo Valeria Ciangottini as Paola Riccardo Garrone as Riccardo Ida Galli as Debutante of the Year Audrey McDonald as Jane Gloria Jones as Gloria Alain Dijon as Frankie Stout Enzo Cerusico as Newspaper photographer Nico as Nico Production[edit] Costumes[edit] In various interviews, Fellini claimed that the film's initial inspiration was the fashionable ladies' sack dress because of what the dress could hide beneath it.[7] Brunello Rondi, Fellini's co-screenwriter and long-time collaborator, confirmed this view explaining that "the fashion of women's sack dresses which possessed that sense of luxurious butterflying out around a body that might be physically beautiful but not morally so; these sack dresses struck Fellini because they rendered a woman very gorgeous who could, instead, be a skeleton of squalor and solitude inside."[8] Writing[edit] Credit for the creation of Steiner, the intellectual who commits suicide after shooting his two children, goes to co-screenwriter Tullio Pinelli. Having gone to school with Italian novelist Cesare Pavese, Pinelli had closely followed the writer's career and felt that his over-intellectualism had become emotionally sterile, leading to his suicide in a Turin hotel in 1950.[9] This idea of a "burnt-out existence" is carried over to Steiner in the party episode where the sounds of nature are not to be experienced first-hand by himself and his guests but in the virtual world of tape recordings. The “false miracle” alludes to the 1958 investigation discounting the claims of two children to have been visited by Our Lady in a farm at Maratta Alta, near Terri.[10] The "dead sea monster" alludes to the Montesi affair, in which the dead body of 21 year old Wilma Montesi was discovered on a beach after an alleged aristocratic orgy in April 1953.[11] Filming[edit] Most of the film was shot at the Cinecittà Studios in Rome. Set designer Piero Gherardi created over eighty locations, including the Via Veneto, the dome of Saint Peter's with the staircase leading up to it, and various nightclubs.[12] However, other sequences were shot on location such as the party at the aristocrats' castle filmed in the real Bassano di Sutri palace north of Rome. (Some of the servants, waiters, and guests were played by real aristocrats.) Fellini combined constructed sets with location shots, depending on script requirements—a real location often "gave birth to the modified scene and, consequently, the newly constructed set."[13] The film's famous last scenes where the monster fish is pulled out of the sea and Marcello waves goodbye to Paola (the teenage "Umbrian angel") were shot on location at Passo Oscuro, a small resort town situated on the Italian coast 30 kilometers from Rome.[b] Fellini scrapped a major sequence that would have involved the relationship of Marcello with Dolores, an older writer living in a tower, to be played by 1930s Academy Award-winning actress Luise Rainer.[14] If the director’s dealings with Rainer "who used to involve Fellini in futile discussion" were problematic, biographer Kezich argues that while rewriting the screenplay, the Dolores character grew "hyperbolic" and Fellini decided to jettison "the entire story line."[15] The scene in the Trevi Fountain was shot over a week in winter: in March according to the BBC,[16] in late January according to Anita Ekberg.[17] Fellini claimed that Ekberg stood in the cold water in her dress for hours without any trouble while Mastroianni had to wear a wetsuit beneath his clothes - to no avail. It was only after the actor "polished off a bottle of vodka" and "was completely pissed" that Fellini could shoot the scene.[18] Paparazzo[edit] The character of Paparazzo, the news photographer (Walter Santesso), was inspired by photojournalist Tazio Secchiaroli[19] and is the origin of the word paparazziused in many languages to describe intrusive photographers.[20] As to the origin of the character's name itself, Fellini scholar Peter Bondanella argues that although "it is indeed an Italian family name, the word is probably a corruption of the word papataceo, a large and bothersome mosquito. Ennio Flaiano, the film's co-screenwriter and creator of Paparazzo, reports that he took the name from a character in a novel by George Gissing."[21] Gissing's character, Signor Paparazzo, is found in his travel book, By the Ionian Sea (1901).[22][c] Themes, motifs and structure[edit] Marcello is a journalist in Rome during the late 1950s who covers tabloid news of movie stars, religious visions and the self-indulgent aristocracy while searching for a more meaningful way of life. Marcello faces the existential struggle of having to choose between two lives, depicted by journalism and literature. Marcello leads a lifestyle of excess, fame and pleasure amongst Rome's thriving popular culture, depicting the confusion and frequency with which Marcello gets distracted by women and power. A more sensitive Marcello aspires to become a writer, of leading an intellectual life amongst the elites, the poets, writers and philosophers of the time. Marcello eventually chooses neither journalism, nor literature. Thematically he opted for the life of excess and popularity by officially becoming a publicity agent. The theme of the film "is predominantly café society, the diverse and glittery world rebuilt upon the ruins and poverty" of the Italian postwar period.[1] In the opening sequence, a plaster statue of Jesus the Labourer suspended by cables from a helicopter, flies past the ruins of an ancient Roman aqueduct.[d] The statue is being taken to the Pope at the Vatican. Journalist Marcello and a photographer named Paparazzo follow in a second helicopter. The symbolism of Jesus, arms outstretched as if blessing all of Rome as it flies overhead, is soon replaced by the profane life and neo-modern architecture of the "new" Rome, founded on the economic miracle of the late 1950s. (Much of this was filmed in Cinecittà or in EUR, the Mussolini-style area south of Rome.) The delivery of the statue is the first of many scenes placing religious icons in the midst of characters demonstrating their "modern" morality, influenced by the booming economy and the emerging mass-consumer life. Seven episodes[edit] The most common interpretation of the film is a mosaic, its parts linked by the protagonist, Marcello Rubini, a journalist.[24] The seven episodes are: Marcello's evening with the heiress Maddalena (Anouk Aimée) His long, frustrating night with the American actress Sylvia (Anita Ekberg) that ends in the Trevi fountain at dawn His reunion with the intellectual Steiner (Alain Cuny) their relationship is divided into three sequences spread over the film: a) the encounter, b) Steiner's party and c) Steiner's tragedy The fake miracle His father's visit/Steiner's Party The aristocrat's party/Steiner's tragedy The "orgy" at the beach house[25] Interrupting the seven episodes is the restaurant sequence with the angelic Paola; they are framed by a prologue (Jesus over Rome) and epilogue (the monster fish) giving the film its innovative and symmetrically symbolic structure.[1] The evocations are: seven deadly sins, seven sacraments, seven virtues, seven days of creation. Other critics disagree, Peter Bondanella argues that "any critic of La Dolce Vita not mesmerized by the magic number seven will find it almost impossible to organize the numerous sequences on a strictly numerological basis".[26] An aesthetic of disparity[edit] The critic Robert Richardson suggests that the originality of La Dolce Vita lies in a new form of film narrative that mines "an aesthetic of disparity".[27] Abandoning traditional plot and conventional "character development", Fellini and co-screenwriters Ennio Flaiano and Tullio Pinelli forged a cinematic narrative that rejected continuity, unnecessary explanations and narrative logic in favour of seven non-linear encounters between Marcello, a kind of Dantesque Pilgrim and an underworld of 120 characters. The encounters build up a cumulative impression on the viewer that finds resolution in an "overpowering sense of the disparity between what life has been or could be, and what it actually is".[28] In a device used earlier in his films, Fellini orders the disparate succession of sequences as movements from evening to dawn. Also employed as an ordering device is the image of a downward spiral that Marcello sets in motion when descending the first of several staircases (including ladders) that open and close episodes. The upshot is that the film's aesthetic form, rather than its content, embodies the theme of Rome as a moral wasteland. Critical reception[edit] Writing for L'Espresso, the Italian novelist Alberto Moravia highlighted the film's variations in tone, Highly expressive throughout, Fellini seems to change the tone according to the subject matter of each episode, ranging from expressionist caricature to pure neo-realism. In general, the tendency to caricature is greater the more severe the film's moral judgement although this is never totally contemptuous, there being always a touch of complacence and participation, as in the final orgy scene or the episode at the aristocrats' castle outside Rome, the latter being particularly effective for its descriptive acuteness and narrative rhythm.[29] In Filmcritica XI, Italian poet and film director Pier Paolo Pasolini argued that "La Dolce Vita was too important to be discussed as one would normally discuss a film. Though not as great as Chaplin, Eisenstein or Mizoguchi, Fellini is unquestionably an author rather than a director. The film is therefore his and his alone... The camera moves and fixes the image in such a way as to create a sort of diaphragm around each object, thus making the object’s relationship to the world appear as irrational and magical. As each new episode begins, the camera is already in motion using complicated movements. Frequently, however, these sinuous movements are brutally punctuated by a very simple documentary shot, like a quotation written in everyday language.[30] Jacques Doniol-Valcroze, film critic and co-founder of Cahiers du cinéma, felt that "what La Dolce Vita lacks is the structure of a masterpiece. In fact, the film has no proper structure: it is a succession of cinematic moments, some more convincing than others… In the face of criticism, La Dolce Vita disintegrates, leaving behind little more than a sequence of events with no common denominator linking them into a meaningful whole".[31] The New York Times film critic Bosley Crowther praised Fellini’s brilliantly graphic estimation of a whole swath of society in sad decay and, eventually, a withering commentary on the tragedy of the over-civilized… Fellini is nothing if not fertile, fierce and urbane in calculating the social scene around him and packing it onto the screen. He has an uncanny eye for finding the offbeat and grotesque incident, the gross and bizarre occurrence that exposes a glaring irony. He has, too, a splendid sense of balance and a deliciously sardonic wit that not only guided his cameras but also affected the writing of the script. In sum, it is an awesome picture, licentious in content but moral and vastly sophisticated in its attitude and what it says.[32] Roger Ebert considered La Dolce Vita as Fellini’s best film, as well as his favorite film of all time and listed it consistently in his top ten films for the Sight & SoundGreatest Films poll every ten years.[33][34][35] Ebert's first review for the film, written on October 4, 1961, was the first film review he wrote, before he started his career as a film critic in 1967.[36] The film was also a touchstone for Ebert, in how his perspective of the movie and his life changes as time passes by, giving this summation in his 1997 Great Movie review Movies do not change, but their viewers do. When I saw "La Dolce Vita" in 1960, I was an adolescent for whom "the sweet life" represented everything I dreamed of: sin, exotic European glamour, the weary romance of the cynical newspaperman. When I saw it again, around 1970, I was living in a version of Marcello's world; Chicago's North Avenue was not the Via Veneto, but at 3 a.m. the denizens were just as colorful, and I was about Marcello's age. When I saw the movie around 1980, Marcello was the same age, but I was 10 years older, had stopped drinking, and saw him not as a role model but as a victim, condemned to an endless search for happiness that could never be found, not that way. By 1991, when I analyzed the film a frame at a time at the University of Colorado, Marcello seemed younger still, and while I had once admired and then criticized him, now I pitied and loved him. And when I saw the movie right after Mastroianni died, I thought that Fellini and Marcello had taken a moment of discovery and made it immortal.[37] Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports that from 58 reviews, 97% were positive; the consensus states: "An epic, breathtakingly stylish cinematic landmark, La Dolce Vita remains riveting in spite of—or perhaps because of—its sprawling length".[38] On Metacritic, the film has a 93/100 rating based on 12 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[39] The film earned $6 million in North American rentals on original release.[40] The film was re-released in North America in 1966 and earned $1.5 million in rentals.[41] Censorship[edit] Perceived by the Catholic Church as a parody of the second coming of Jesus, the opening scene and the film were condemned by the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano in 1960.[42] Subject to widespread censorship, the film was banned in Spain, until the death of Franco in 1975.[22] Umberto Tupini, the Minister of Culture of the Tambroni government censored it and other "shameful films". Awards and recognition[edit] The New York Times described La Dolce Vita as "one of the most widely seen and acclaimed European movies of the 1960s".[43] It was nominated for four Academy Awards, and won one for Best Costume Design: Black-and-White. La Dolce Vita also earned the Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) at the 1960 Cannes Film Festival.[2][44]Entertainment Weekly voted it the 6th Greatest film of all time.[45] In 2010, the film was ranked #11 in Empire magazine's "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema".[46] In popular culture[edit] One of the characters, Paparazzo, is the inspiration for the popular metonym "paparazzi", a word for intrusive photojournalists.[47] The 1961 movie Divorce Italian Style has the townspeople attend a screening of La Dolce Vita, while the main character (Marcello Mastroianni again) sneaks off to surprise his wife in flagrante. Tributes to Fellini in the "Director's Cut" of Cinema Paradiso (1988) include a helicopter suspending a statue of Jesus over the city and scenes in which the Trevi Fountain is used as a backdrop while Toto, the main character, grows up to be a famous film director.[citation needed] Woody Allen's Celebrity (1998) is a New York–set re-working of La Dolce Vita with Kenneth Branagh taking up Mastroianni's role and Winona Ryder and Charlize Theron taking on the roles of Anouk Aimée and Anita Ekberg, respectively.[citation needed] The Bob Dylan song "Motorpsycho Nightmare" contains the line, "Then in comes his daughter, whose name was Rita/She looked like she'd stepped out of La Dolce Vita". The 2003 film Under the Tuscan Sun makes a reference to the Trevi fountain scene in La Dolce Vita. In Sofia Coppola's film Lost in Translation (2003), Kelly's interview for LIT resembles Sylvia's interview scenes in La Dolce Vita. Charlotte and Bob later meet in the middle of the night and watch the famous Trevi Fountain sequence while drinking sake.[22] Coppola said, "I saw that movie on TV when I was in Japan. It's not plot-driven, it's about them wandering around. And there was something with the Japanese subtitles and them speaking Italian—it had a truly enchanting quality".[22] The 2013 Italian film The Great Beauty features a former writer who wanders through the parties of the Roman high society trying to decide what to do with his life.[48][49] Notes[edit] Jump up^ The fish is not specified in the film script nor identified by critics or biographers. Set designer Piero Gherardi described his creation as "a kind of huge beast with blobs of plaster all over it like veal tripe. For eyes I gave it convex enlarging lenses".[6] Jump up^ The feature documentary, Fellini: I'm a Born Liar, shows many of these real locations used throughout the director's films. Jump up^ An alternative Italian spelling and description of the mosquito as pappatacio and "tiny with large wings" are also referenced.[23] Jump up^ The aqueduct can be seen from the railway south of Termini station in Rome or by visiting the Parco degli Acquedotti. References[edit] ^ Jump up to:a b c Kezich, 203 ^ Jump up to:a b "Festival de Cannes: La Dolce Vita". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 15 February 2009. Jump up^ Pettigrew, 169 Jump up^ http://www.jpbox-office.com/fichfilm.php?id=13051 Jump up^ Cf. Bondanella 1994, p. 143 and Kezich, p. 203 Jump up^ Alpert, 141. Cf. Kezich, 204-205 and Bondanella, 144 Jump up^ Pettigrew, 57. Jump up^ Bondanella, Peter, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, 134 Jump up^ Kezich, 198 Jump up^ G. Bertelli, Divi e paparazzi: la dolce vita di Fellini (Genoa: Le mani, 2009), p34 Jump up^ Stephen Gundle, Death and the Dolce Vita: The Dark Side of Rome in the 1950s(Canongate Books, 2012). Karen Pinkus, The Montesi Scandal: The Death of Wilma Montesi and the Birth of the Paparazzi in Fellini's Rome (University of Chicago Press, 2003) Jump up^ Fellini, 67-83. Jump up^ Bondanella, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, 142 Jump up^ Kezich, 199 Jump up^ Kezich, 199, 241 Jump up^ "BBC NEWS - Europe - La Dolce Vita, 50 years and counting". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 14 March 2016. Jump up^ Interview with Anita Ekberg by Roberta Licurgo included in 2004 DVD edition of La Dolce Vita. Jump up^ Costantini, 47 Jump up^ Aspesi, Natalia (7 February 2010). "La Dolce Vita ha 50 anni ma sembra scritta oggi - Dopo mezzo secolo La Dolce Vita fa ancora scandalo". La Repubblica. Retrieved 3 August 2012. Jump up^ "Definition of paparazzi at Merriam-Webster". Retrieved 3 August 2012. Jump up^ Bondanella, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, 136 ^ Jump up to:a b c d French, Philip (17 February 2008). "Italian cinema's sweet success". The Observer. London. Retrieved 19 February 2008. Jump up^ Mario Burgo. "Pappataci". mosquitoweb.it. Retrieved 14 March 2016. Jump up^ Bondanella, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, 143 Jump up^ "At a villa on the coast near Fregene, Marcello presides over what passed for an "orgy" in 1959." Bondanella, 144 Jump up^ Bondanella, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, 145 Jump up^ Richardson, Robert, 'Waste Lands: The Breakdown of Order' in Bondanella (ed.), Federico Fellini: Essays in Criticism, 111 Jump up^ Richardson, 'Waste Lands: The Breakdown of Order', 111. Jump up^ Moravia's review first published in L'Espresso (Rome), 14 February 1960. Fava and Vigano, p. 104 Jump up^ Pasolini's review first published in Filmcritica XI (Rome), February 1960. In Fava and Vigano, 104–105 Jump up^ Doniol-Valcroze's review first published in France observateur (Paris), 19 May 1960. In Fava and Vigano, p. 104 Jump up^ Crowther’s review first published in The New York Times, 20 April 1961. In Fava and Vigano, p. 105 Jump up^ Ebert, Roger (4 September 2008). ""What's Your Favorite Movie"". RogerEbert.com. Ebert Digital LLC. Retrieved 28 May 2016. Jump up^ Ebert, Roger (1 April 1991). "Ten Greatest Films of All Time". RogerEbert.com. Ebert Digital LLC. Retrieved 28 May 2016. Jump up^ "Roger Ebert". bfi.org.uk. Retrieved 14 March 2016. Jump up^ Ebert, Roger (4 October 1961). "La Dolce Vita Movie Review & Film Summary (1960)". RogerEbert.com. Ebert Digital LLC. Retrieved 28 May 2016. Jump up^ Ebert, Roger (5 January 1997). "La Dolce Vita Movie Review & Film Summary (1960)". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 28 May 2016. Jump up^ "La Dolce Vita". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved 15 January 2015. Jump up^ "La Dolce Vita". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 15 January 2015. Jump up^ "All-Time Top Grossers", Variety, 8 January 1964 p 69 Jump up^ "Big Rental Pictures of 1966", Variety, 4 January 1967 p 8 Jump up^ Kezich, 209 Jump up^ Scott, A. O. "La Dolce Vita". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 February 2007. Jump up^ "Awards for La Dolce Vita". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 3 February2007. Jump up^ "Entertainment Weekly's 100 Greatest Movies of All Time". Filmsite.org. Retrieved 19 January 2009. Jump up^ "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema". Empire. Jump up^ "Definition of paparazzi at Merriam-Webster". Retrieved 3 August 2012. Jump up^ Collins, Robbie (22 May 2013). "The Great Beauty, review". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 November 2013. Jump up^ Young, Deborah (21 May 2013). "The Great Beauty: Cannes Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 1 November 2013. Bibliography[edit] Bondanella, Peter (1978). Federico Fellini: Essays in Criticism. New York: Oxford University Press Bondanella, Peter (1992). The Cinema of Federico Fellini. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Costantini, Costanzo (ed.)(1994). Fellini on Fellini. London: Faber and Faber. Fava, Claudio, and Aldo Vigano (1985). The Films of Federico Fellini. New York: Citadel Press. Fellini, Federico (1976). Fellini on Fellini. London: Eyre Methuen. —, and Damian Pettigrew (2003). I'm a Born Liar: A Fellini Lexicon. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8478-3135-3 Kezich, Tullio (2006). Federico Fellini: His Life and Work. New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-21168-5 Further reading[edit] (in Italian) Costa, Antonio (2010) . Federico Fellini. 'La dolce vita'. Lindau: collana Universale film. (in Italian) Fellini, Federico, and Joseph-Marie Lo Duca (1960). La dolce vita. Paris: Jean-Jacques Pauvert Editeur. Kezich, Tullio (2005). "Federico Fellini and the Making of 'La Dolce Vita'". in Cineaste, Volume 31, no. 1, 2005, pp. 8–14. (in Italian) — (1960). 'La Dolce Vita' di Federico Fellini. Bologna: Cappelli editore, collana Fellini Federico: dal soggetto al Film, 1960. (in Italian) — (1996). Su 'La Dolce Vita' con Federico Fellini. Venice: Marsilio. Ricciardi, Alessia (2000). "The Spleen of Rome: Mourning Modernism in Fellini's 'La Dolce Vita'". in Modernism/Modernity, Volume 7, no. 2, 2000, pp. 201–219. ****La Dolce Vita Original release poster by Giorgio Olivetti Directed by Federico Fellini Produced by Giuseppe Amato Angelo Rizzoli Screenplay by Federico Fellini Ennio Flaiano Tullio Pinelli Brunello Rondi Uncredited: Pier Paolo Pasolini Story by Federico Fellini Ennio Flaiano Tullio Pinelli Starring Marcello Mastroianni Anita Ekberg Anouk Aimée Yvonne Furneaux Magali Noël Alain Cuny Nadia Gray Music by Nino Rota Cinematography Otello Martelli Edited by Leo Catozzo Production company Riama Film Pathé Consortium Cinéma Gray Films Distributed by Cineriz (Italy) Pathé Consortium Cinéma (France) Release date 5 February 1960 (Italy) 19 April 1961 (United States) Running time 174 minutes 180 minutes (US) Country Italy France Language Italian English French German Box office $19.5 million (US) La Dolce Vita (Italian pronunciation: [la ˈdoltʃe ˈviːta]; Italian for "the sweet life" or "the good life")[1] is a 1960 Italian dramafilm directed and co-written by Federico Fellini. The film follows Marcello Rubini (Marcello Mastroianni), a journalist writing for gossip magazines, over seven days and nights on his journey through the "sweet life" of Rome in a fruitless search for love and happiness. La Dolce Vita won the Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) at the 1960 Cannes Film Festival[2] and the Oscar for Best Costumes.[3] The film was a massive box office hit in Europe with 13,617,148 admissions in Italy and 2,956,094 admissions in France.[4] Contents  [hide]  1 Plot 1.1 Prologue 1.2 Episode 1 1.3 Episode 2 1.4 Episode 3a 1.5 Episode 4 1.6 Episode 3b 1.7 Intermezzo 1.8 Episode 5 1.9 Episode 6 1.10 Episode 3c 1.11 Episode 7 1.12 Epilogue 2 Cast 3 Production 3.1 Costumes 3.2 Writing 3.3 Filming 3.3.1 Paparazzo 4 Themes, motifs and structure 4.1 Seven episodes 4.2 An aesthetic of disparity 5 Critical reception 5.1 Censorship 5.2 Awards and recognition 6 In popular culture 7 Notes 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links Plot[edit] Based on the most common interpretation of the storyline,[5] the film can be divided into a prologue, seven major episodes interrupted by an intermezzo, and an epilogue (see also Structure, below). If the evenings of each episode were joined with the morning of the respective preceding episode together as a day, they would form seven consecutive days, which may not necessarily be the case.[clarification needed] Prologue[edit] 1st Day Sequence: A helicopter transports a statue of Christ over an ancient Roman aqueduct outside Rome while a second, Marcello Rubini's news helicopter, follows it into the city. The news helicopter is momentarily sidetracked by a group of bikini-clad women sunbathing on the rooftop of a high-rise apartment building. Hovering above, Marcello uses gestures to elicit phone numbers from them but fails in his attempt then shrugs and continues on following the statue into Saint Peter's Square. Episode 1[edit] 1st Night Sequence: Marcello meets Maddalena by chance in an exclusive nightclub. A beautiful and wealthy heiress, Maddalena is tired of Rome and constantly in search of new sensations while Marcello finds Rome suits him as a jungle he can hide in. They make love in the bedroom of a prostitute to whom they had given a ride home in Maddalena’s Cadillac. 1st Dawn Sequence: Marcello returns to his apartment at dawn to find that his fiancée, Emma, has overdosed. On the way to the hospital, he declares his everlasting love to her and again as she lies in a semiconscious state in the emergency room. While waiting frantically for her recovery, however, he tries to make a phone call to Maddalena. Episode 2[edit] 2nd Day Sequence: That day, he goes on assignment for the arrival of Sylvia, a famous Swedish-American actress, at Ciampino airport where she is met by a horde of news reporters. During Sylvia's press conference, Marcello calls home to ensure Emma has taken her medication while reassuring her that he is not alone with Sylvia. After the film star confidently replies to the barrage of journalists' questions, her boyfriend Robert (Lex Barker) enters the room late and drunk. To Sylvia's producer, Marcello casually recommends that Sylvia be taken on a tour of St Peter's. Inside St Peter's dome, a news reporter complains that Sylvia is "an elevator" because none of them can match her energetic climb up the numerous flights of stairs. Inspired, Marcello maneuvers forward to be alone with her when they finally reach the balcony overlooking the Vatican. 2nd Night Sequence: That evening, the infatuated Marcello dances with Sylvia in the Baths of Caracalla. Sylvia's natural sensuality triggers raucous partying while Robert, her bored fiancé, draws caricatures and reads a newspaper. His humiliating remark to her causes Sylvia to leave the group, eagerly followed by Marcello and his paparazzi colleagues. Finding themselves alone, Marcello and Sylvia spend the rest of the evening in the alleys of Rome where they wade into the Trevi Fountain. 2nd Dawn Sequence: Like a magic spell that has suddenly been broken, dawn arrives at the very moment Sylvia playfully "anoints" Marcello's head with fountain water. They drive back to Sylvia's hotel to find an enraged Robert waiting for her in his car. Robert slaps Sylvia, orders her to go to bed, and then assaults Marcello who takes it in stride. Episode 3a[edit] 3rd Day Sequence: Marcello meets Steiner, his distinguished intellectual friend, inside a church playing Bach on the organ. Steiner shows off his book of Sanskritgrammar. Episode 4[edit] 4th Day Sequence: Late afternoon, Marcello, his photographer friend Paparazzo, and Emma drive to the outskirts of Rome to cover the story of the purported sighting of the Madonna by two children. Although the Catholic Church is officially skeptical, a huge crowd of devotees and reporters gathers at the site. 3rd Night Sequence: That night, the event is broadcast over Italian radio and television. Blindly following the two children from corner to corner in a downpour, the crowd tears a small tree apart for its branches and leaves said to have sheltered the Madonna. Meanwhile, Emma prays to the Virgin Mary to be given sole possession of Marcello's heart. 3rd Dawn Sequence: The gathering ends at dawn with the crowd mourning a sick child, a pilgrim brought by his mother to be healed, but trampled to death in the melee. Episode 3b[edit] 4th Night Sequence: One evening, Marcello and Emma attend a gathering at Steiner’s luxurious home where they are introduced to a group of intellectuals who recite poetry, strum the guitar, offer philosophical ideas, and listen to sounds of nature recorded on tape. An American woman, whose poetry Marcello has read and admired, recommends that Marcello avoid the "prisons" of commitment: "Stay free, available, like me. Never get married. Never choose. Even in love, it's better to be chosen." Emma appears enchanted with Steiner's home and children, telling Marcello that one day he will have a home like Steiner's. Outside on the terrace, Marcello confesses to Steiner his admiration for all he stands for, but Steiner admits he is torn between the security that a materialistic life affords and his longing for a more spiritual albeit insecure way of life. Steiner philosophizes about the need for love in the world and fears what his children may grow up to face one day. Intermezzo[edit] 5th Day Sequence: Marcello spends the afternoon working on his novel at a seaside restaurant where he meets Paola, a young waitress from Perugia playing Perez Prado's cha-cha Patricia on the jukebox and then humming its tune. He asks her if she has a boyfriend, then describes her as an angel in Umbrian paintings. Episode 5[edit] 5th Night Sequence: Marcello meets his father (Annibale Ninchi) visiting Rome on the Via Veneto. With Paparazzo, they go to the Cha-Cha-Cha Club where Marcello introduces his father to Fanny, a beautiful dancer and one of his past girlfriends (he had promised to get her picture in the paper, but failed to do it). Fanny takes a liking to his father. Marcello tells Paparazzo that as a child he had never seen much of his father, who would spend weeks away from home. Fanny invites Marcello’s father back to her flat, and two other dancers invite the two younger men to go with them. Marcello leaves the others when they get to the dancers' neighborhood. Fanny comes out of her house, upset that Marcello's father has become ill. 4th Dawn Sequence: Marcello's father has suffered what seems to be a mild heart attack. Marcello wants him to stay with him in Rome so they can get to know each other, but his father, weakened, wants to go home and gets in a taxi to catch the first train home. He leaves Marcello forlorn, on the street, watching the taxi leave. Episode 6[edit] 6th Night Sequence: Marcello, Nico, and other friends met on the Via Veneto are driven to a castle owned by aristocrats at Bassano di Sutri outside Rome. There is already a party long in progress, and the party-goers are bleary-eyed and intoxicated. By chance, Marcello meets Maddalena again. The two of them explore a suite of ruins annexed to the castle. Maddalena seats Marcello in a vast room and then closets herself in another room connected by an echo chamber. As a disembodied voice, Maddalena asks him to marry her; Marcello professes his love for her, avoiding answering her proposal. Another man kisses and embraces Maddalena, who loses interest in Marcello. He rejoins the group, and eventually spends the night with Jane, an American artist and heiress. 5th Dawn Sequence: Burnt out and bleary-eyed, the group returns at dawn to the main section of the castle, to be met by the matriarch of the castle, who is on her way to mass, accompanied by priests in a procession. Episode 3c[edit] 7th Night Sequence: Marcello and Emma are alone in his sports car on an isolated road. Emma starts an argument by professing her love, and tries to get out of the car; Marcello pleads with her not to get out. Emma says that Marcello will never find another woman who loves him the way she does. Marcello becomes enraged, telling her that he cannot live with her smothering, maternal love. He now wants her to get out of the car, but she refuses. With some violence (a bite from her and a slap from him), he throws her out of the car and drives off, leaving her alone on a deserted road at night. Hours later, Emma hears his car approaching as she picks flowers by the roadside. She gets into the car with neither of them saying a word. 6th Dawn Sequence: Marcello and Emma are asleep in bed, tenderly intertwined; Marcello receives a phone call. He rushes to the Steiners' apartment and learns that Steiner has killed his two children and himself. 6th Day Sequence: After waiting with the police for Steiner’s wife to return home, he meets her outside to break the terrible news while paparazzi swarm around her snapping pictures. Episode 7[edit] 6th Night Sequence: An unspecified amount of time later, an older Marcello—now with gray in his hair—and a group of partygoers break into a Fregene beach house owned by Riccardo, a friend of Marcello's. Many of the men are homosexual. To celebrate her recent divorce from Riccardo, Nadia performs a striptease to Perez Prado's cha-cha Patricia. The drunken Marcello attempts to provoke the other partygoers into an orgy. Due to their inebriated states, however, the party descends into mayhem with Marcello throwing pillow feathers around the room as he rides a young woman crawling on her hands and knees. Riccardo shows up at the house and angrily tells the partiers to leave. Epilogue[edit] 7th Dawn Sequence: The party proceeds to the beach at dawn where they find a modern-day leviathan, a bloated, stingray-like creature, caught in the fishermen's nets.[a] In his stupor, Marcello comments on how its eyes stare even in death. 7th Day Sequence: Paola, the adolescent waitress from the seaside restaurant in Fregene, calls to Marcello from across an estuary but the words they exchange are lost on the wind, drowned out by the crash of the waves. He signals his inability to understand what she is saying or interpret her gestures. He shrugs and returns to the partygoers; one of the women joins him and they hold hands as they walk away from the beach. In a long final close-up, Paola waves to Marcello then stands watching him with an enigmatic smile. Cast[edit] Marcello Mastroianni as Marcello Rubini Anita Ekberg as Sylvia Anouk Aimée as Maddalena Yvonne Furneaux as Emma Lex Barker as Robert, Sylvia's fiancé. Magali Noël as Fanny Alain Cuny as Steiner Nadia Gray as Nadia Annibale Ninchi as Marcello's father Walter Santesso as Paparazzo Valeria Ciangottini as Paola Riccardo Garrone as Riccardo Ida Galli as Debutante of the Year Audrey McDonald as Jane Gloria Jones as Gloria Alain Dijon as Frankie Stout Enzo Cerusico as Newspaper photographer Nico as Nico Production[edit] Costumes[edit] In various interviews, Fellini claimed that the film's initial inspiration was the fashionable ladies' sack dress because of what the dress could hide beneath it.[7] Brunello Rondi, Fellini's co-screenwriter and long-time collaborator, confirmed this view explaining that "the fashion of women's sack dresses which possessed that sense of luxurious butterflying out around a body that might be physically beautiful but not morally so; these sack dresses struck Fellini because they rendered a woman very gorgeous who could, instead, be a skeleton of squalor and solitude inside."[8] Writing[edit] Credit for the creation of Steiner, the intellectual who commits suicide after shooting his two children, goes to co-screenwriter Tullio Pinelli. Having gone to school with Italian novelist Cesare Pavese, Pinelli had closely followed the writer's career and felt that his over-intellectualism had become emotionally sterile, leading to his suicide in a Turin hotel in 1950.[9] This idea of a "burnt-out existence" is carried over to Steiner in the party episode where the sounds of nature are not to be experienced first-hand by himself and his guests but in the virtual world of tape recordings. The “false miracle” alludes to the 1958 investigation discounting the claims of two children to have been visited by Our Lady in a farm at Maratta Alta, near Terri.[10] The "dead sea monster" alludes to the Montesi affair, in which the dead body of 21 year old Wilma Montesi was discovered on a beach after an alleged aristocratic orgy in April 1953.[11] Filming[edit] Most of the film was shot at the Cinecittà Studios in Rome. Set designer Piero Gherardi created over eighty locations, including the Via Veneto, the dome of Saint Peter's with the staircase leading up to it, and various nightclubs.[12] However, other sequences were shot on location such as the party at the aristocrats' castle filmed in the real Bassano di Sutri palace north of Rome. (Some of the servants, waiters, and guests were played by real aristocrats.) Fellini combined constructed sets with location shots, depending on script requirements—a real location often "gave birth to the modified scene and, consequently, the newly constructed set."[13] The film's famous last scenes where the monster fish is pulled out of the sea and Marcello waves goodbye to Paola (the teenage "Umbrian angel") were shot on location at Passo Oscuro, a small resort town situated on the Italian coast 30 kilometers from Rome.[b] Fellini scrapped a major sequence that would have involved the relationship of Marcello with Dolores, an older writer living in a tower, to be played by 1930s Academy Award-winning actress Luise Rainer.[14] If the director’s dealings with Rainer "who used to involve Fellini in futile discussion" were problematic, biographer Kezich argues that while rewriting the screenplay, the Dolores character grew "hyperbolic" and Fellini decided to jettison "the entire story line."[15] The scene in the Trevi Fountain was shot over a week in winter: in March according to the BBC,[16] in late January according to Anita Ekberg.[17] Fellini claimed that Ekberg stood in the cold water in her dress for hours without any trouble while Mastroianni had to wear a wetsuit beneath his clothes - to no avail. It was only after the actor "polished off a bottle of vodka" and "was completely pissed" that Fellini could shoot the scene.[18] Paparazzo[edit] The character of Paparazzo, the news photographer (Walter Santesso), was inspired by photojournalist Tazio Secchiaroli[19] and is the origin of the word paparazziused in many languages to describe intrusive photographers.[20] As to the origin of the character's name itself, Fellini scholar Peter Bondanella argues that although "it is indeed an Italian family name, the word is probably a corruption of the word papataceo, a large and bothersome mosquito. Ennio Flaiano, the film's co-screenwriter and creator of Paparazzo, reports that he took the name from a character in a novel by George Gissing."[21] Gissing's character, Signor Paparazzo, is found in his travel book, By the Ionian Sea (1901).[22][c] Themes, motifs and structure[edit] Marcello is a journalist in Rome during the late 1950s who covers tabloid news of movie stars, religious visions and the self-indulgent aristocracy while searching for a more meaningful way of life. Marcello faces the existential struggle of having to choose between two lives, depicted by journalism and literature. Marcello leads a lifestyle of excess, fame and pleasure amongst Rome's thriving popular culture, depicting the confusion and frequency with which Marcello gets distracted by women and power. A more sensitive Marcello aspires to become a writer, of leading an intellectual life amongst the elites, the poets, writers and philosophers of the time. Marcello eventually chooses neither journalism, nor literature. Thematically he opted for the life of excess and popularity by officially becoming a publicity agent. The theme of the film "is predominantly café society, the diverse and glittery world rebuilt upon the ruins and poverty" of the Italian postwar period.[1] In the opening sequence, a plaster statue of Jesus the Labourer suspended by cables from a helicopter, flies past the ruins of an ancient Roman aqueduct.[d] The statue is being taken to the Pope at the Vatican. Journalist Marcello and a photographer named Paparazzo follow in a second helicopter. The symbolism of Jesus, arms outstretched as if blessing all of Rome as it flies overhead, is soon replaced by the profane life and neo-modern architecture of the "new" Rome, founded on the economic miracle of the late 1950s. (Much of this was filmed in Cinecittà or in EUR, the Mussolini-style area south of Rome.) The delivery of the statue is the first of many scenes placing religious icons in the midst of characters demonstrating their "modern" morality, influenced by the booming economy and the emerging mass-consumer life. Seven episodes[edit] The most common interpretation of the film is a mosaic, its parts linked by the protagonist, Marcello Rubini, a journalist.[24] The seven episodes are: Marcello's evening with the heiress Maddalena (Anouk Aimée) His long, frustrating night with the American actress Sylvia (Anita Ekberg) that ends in the Trevi fountain at dawn His reunion with the intellectual Steiner (Alain Cuny) their relationship is divided into three sequences spread over the film: a) the encounter, b) Steiner's party and c) Steiner's tragedy The fake miracle His father's visit/Steiner's Party The aristocrat's party/Steiner's tragedy The "orgy" at the beach house[25] Interrupting the seven episodes is the restaurant sequence with the angelic Paola; they are framed by a prologue (Jesus over Rome) and epilogue (the monster fish) giving the film its innovative and symmetrically symbolic structure.[1] The evocations are: seven deadly sins, seven sacraments, seven virtues, seven days of creation. Other critics disagree, Peter Bondanella argues that "any critic of La Dolce Vita not mesmerized by the magic number seven will find it almost impossible to organize the numerous sequences on a strictly numerological basis".[26] An aesthetic of disparity[edit] The critic Robert Richardson suggests that the originality of La Dolce Vita lies in a new form of film narrative that mines "an aesthetic of disparity".[27] Abandoning traditional plot and conventional "character development", Fellini and co-screenwriters Ennio Flaiano and Tullio Pinelli forged a cinematic narrative that rejected continuity, unnecessary explanations and narrative logic in favour of seven non-linear encounters between Marcello, a kind of Dantesque Pilgrim and an underworld of 120 characters. The encounters build up a cumulative impression on the viewer that finds resolution in an "overpowering sense of the disparity between what life has been or could be, and what it actually is".[28] In a device used earlier in his films, Fellini orders the disparate succession of sequences as movements from evening to dawn. Also employed as an ordering device is the image of a downward spiral that Marcello sets in motion when descending the first of several staircases (including ladders) that open and close episodes. The upshot is that the film's aesthetic form, rather than its content, embodies the theme of Rome as a moral wasteland. Critical reception[edit] Writing for L'Espresso, the Italian novelist Alberto Moravia highlighted the film's variations in tone, Highly expressive throughout, Fellini seems to change the tone according to the subject matter of each episode, ranging from expressionist caricature to pure neo-realism. In general, the tendency to caricature is greater the more severe the film's moral judgement although this is never totally contemptuous, there being always a touch of complacence and participation, as in the final orgy scene or the episode at the aristocrats' castle outside Rome, the latter being particularly effective for its descriptive acuteness and narrative rhythm.[29] In Filmcritica XI, Italian poet and film director Pier Paolo Pasolini argued that "La Dolce Vita was too important to be discussed as one would normally discuss a film. Though not as great as Chaplin, Eisenstein or Mizoguchi, Fellini is unquestionably an author rather than a director. The film is therefore his and his alone... The camera moves and fixes the image in such a way as to create a sort of diaphragm around each object, thus making the object’s relationship to the world appear as irrational and magical. As each new episode begins, the camera is already in motion using complicated movements. Frequently, however, these sinuous movements are brutally punctuated by a very simple documentary shot, like a quotation written in everyday language.[30] Jacques Doniol-Valcroze, film critic and co-founder of Cahiers du cinéma, felt that "what La Dolce Vita lacks is the structure of a masterpiece. In fact, the film has no proper structure: it is a succession of cinematic moments, some more convincing than others… In the face of criticism, La Dolce Vita disintegrates, leaving behind little more than a sequence of events with no common denominator linking them into a meaningful whole".[31] The New York Times film critic Bosley Crowther praised Fellini’s brilliantly graphic estimation of a whole swath of society in sad decay and, eventually, a withering commentary on the tragedy of the over-civilized… Fellini is nothing if not fertile, fierce and urbane in calculating the social scene around him and packing it onto the screen. He has an uncanny eye for finding the offbeat and grotesque incident, the gross and bizarre occurrence that exposes a glaring irony. He has, too, a splendid sense of balance and a deliciously sardonic wit that not only guided his cameras but also affected the writing of the script. In sum, it is an awesome picture, licentious in content but moral and vastly sophisticated in its attitude and what it says.[32] Roger Ebert considered La Dolce Vita as Fellini’s best film, as well as his favorite film of all time and listed it consistently in his top ten films for the Sight & SoundGreatest Films poll every ten years.[33][34][35] Ebert's first review for the film, written on October 4, 1961, was the first film review he wrote, before he started his career as a film critic in 1967.[36] The film was also a touchstone for Ebert, in how his perspective of the movie and his life changes as time passes by, giving this summation in his 1997 Great Movie review Movies do not change, but their viewers do. When I saw "La Dolce Vita" in 1960, I was an adolescent for whom "the sweet life" represented everything I dreamed of: sin, exotic European glamour, the weary romance of the cynical newspaperman. When I saw it again, around 1970, I was living in a version of Marcello's world; Chicago's North Avenue was not the Via Veneto, but at 3 a.m. the denizens were just as colorful, and I was about Marcello's age. When I saw the movie around 1980, Marcello was the same age, but I was 10 years older, had stopped drinking, and saw him not as a role model but as a victim, condemned to an endless search for happiness that could never be found, not that way. By 1991, when I analyzed the film a frame at a time at the University of Colorado, Marcello seemed younger still, and while I had once admired and then criticized him, now I pitied and loved him. And when I saw the movie right after Mastroianni died, I thought that Fellini and Marcello had taken a moment of discovery and made it immortal.[37] Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports that from 58 reviews, 97% were positive; the consensus states: "An epic, breathtakingly stylish cinematic landmark, La Dolce Vita remains riveting in spite of—or perhaps because of—its sprawling length".[38] On Metacritic, the film has a 93/100 rating based on 12 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[39] The film earned $6 million in North American rentals on original release.[40] The film was re-released in North America in 1966 and earned $1.5 million in rentals.[41] Censorship[edit] Perceived by the Catholic Church as a parody of the second coming of Jesus, the opening scene and the film were condemned by the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano in 1960.[42] Subject to widespread censorship, the film was banned in Spain, until the death of Franco in 1975.[22] Umberto Tupini, the Minister of Culture of the Tambroni government censored it and other "shameful films". Awards and recognition[edit] The New York Times described La Dolce Vita as "one of the most widely seen and acclaimed European movies of the 1960s".[43] It was nominated for four Academy Awards, and won one for Best Costume Design: Black-and-White. La Dolce Vita also earned the Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) at the 1960 Cannes Film Festival.[2][44]Entertainment Weekly voted it the 6th Greatest film of all time.[45] In 2010, the film was ranked #11 in Empire magazine's "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema".[46] In popular culture[edit] One of the characters, Paparazzo, is the inspiration for the popular metonym "paparazzi", a word for intrusive photojournalists.[47] The 1961 movie Divorce Italian Style has the townspeople attend a screening of La Dolce Vita, while the main character (Marcello Mastroianni again) sneaks off to surprise his wife in flagrante. Tributes to Fellini in the "Director's Cut" of Cinema Paradiso (1988) include a helicopter suspending a statue of Jesus over the city and scenes in which the Trevi Fountain is used as a backdrop while Toto, the main character, grows up to be a famous film director.[citation needed] Woody Allen's Celebrity (1998) is a New York–set re-working of La Dolce Vita with Kenneth Branagh taking up Mastroianni's role and Winona Ryder and Charlize Theron taking on the roles of Anouk Aimée and Anita Ekberg, respectively.[citation needed] The Bob Dylan song "Motorpsycho Nightmare" contains the line, "Then in comes his daughter, whose name was Rita/She looked like she'd stepped out of La Dolce Vita". The 2003 film Under the Tuscan Sun makes a reference to the Trevi fountain scene in La Dolce Vita. In Sofia Coppola's film Lost in Translation (2003), Kelly's interview for LIT resembles Sylvia's interview scenes in La Dolce Vita. Charlotte and Bob later meet in the middle of the night and watch the famous Trevi Fountain sequence while drinking sake.[22] Coppola said, "I saw that movie on TV when I was in Japan. It's not plot-driven, it's about them wandering around. And there was something with the Japanese subtitles and them speaking Italian—it had a truly enchanting quality".[22] The 2013 Italian film The Great Beauty features a former writer who wanders through the parties of the Roman high society trying to decide what to do with his life.[48][49]   |  Roger Ebert January 5, 1997   |   14 Print Page I have heard theories that Federico Fellini's "La Dolce Vita" catalogs the seven deadly sins, takes place on the seven hills of Rome, and involves seven nights and seven dawns, but I have never looked into them, because that would reduce the movie to a crossword puzzle. I prefer it as an allegory, a cautionary tale of a man without a center. Fellini shot the movie in 1959 on the Via Veneto, the Roman street of nightclubs, sidewalk cafes and the parade of the night. His hero is a gossip columnist, Marcello, who chronicles "the sweet life" of fading aristocrats, second-rate movie stars, aging playboys and women of commerce. The role was played by Marcello Mastroianni, and now that his life has ended we can see that it was his most representative. The two Marcellos -- character and actor -- flowed together into a handsome, weary, desperate man, who dreams of someday doing something good, but is trapped in a life of empty nights and lonely dawns. The movie leaps from one visual extravaganza to another, following Marcello as he chases down stories and women. He has a suicidal fiancee (Magali Noel) at home. In a nightclub, he picks up a promiscuous society beauty (Anouk Aimee), and together they visit the basement lair of a prostitute. The episode ends not in decadence but in sleep; we can never be sure that Marcello has had sex with anyone. Another dawn. And we begin to understand the film's structure: A series of nights and dawns, descents and ascents. Marcello goes down into subterranean nightclubs, hospital parking lots, the hooker's hovel and an ancient crypt. And he ascends St. Peter's dome, climbs to a choir loft, and to the high-rise apartment of Steiner (Alain Cuny), the intellectual who is his hero. He will even fly over Rome. The famous opening scene, as a statue of Christ is carried above Rome by a helicopter, is matched with the close, in which fisherman on the beach find a sea monster in their nets. Two Christ symbols: the statue "beautiful" but false, the fish "ugly" but real. During both scenes there are failures of communication. The helicopter circles as Marcello tries to get the phone numbers of three sunbathing beauties. At the end, across a beach, he sees the shy girl he met one day when he went to the country in search of peace to write his novel. She makes typing motions to remind him, but he does not remember, shrugs, and turns away. If the opening and closing scenes are symmetrical, so are many others, matching the sacred and profane and casting doubts on both. An early sequence finds Marcello covering the arrival in Rome of an improbably buxom movie star (Anita Ekberg), and consumed with desire. He follows her to the top of St. Peters, into the bowels of a nightclub, and into the Roman night, where wild dogs howl and she howls back. His pursuit ends at dawn when she wades into the Trevi Fountain and he wades after her, idealizing her into all women, into The Woman; she remains forever just out of reach. This sequence can be paired with a later one where children report a vision of the Virgin. Marcello races to the site, which is surrounded by TV cameras and a crowd of the devout. Again, we have an idealized woman and the hope that she can solve every problem. But the children lead the faithful on a chase, just as the Ekberg led Marcello around Rome. They see the Virgin here, and then there, as the lame and the blind hobble after them and their grandfather cadges for tips. Once again everything collapses in an exhausted dawn. The central episodes in "La Dolce Vita" involve Steiner, who represents all that Marcello envies. Steiner lives in an apartment filled with art. He presides over a salon of poets, folk singers, intellectuals. He has a beautiful wife and two perfect children. When Marcello sees him entering a church, they ascend to the organ loft and Steiner plays Bach while urging Marcello to have more faith in himself, and finish that book. Then follows the night of Steiner's party, and the moment (more or less the exact center of the film) where Marcello takes his typewriter to a country trattoria and tries to write. Then comes the terrible second Steiner scene, when Marcello discovers that Steiner's serenity was made from a tissue of lies. To mention these scenes is to be reminded of how many other great moments this rich film contains. The echo chamber. The Mass at dawn. The final desperate orgy. And of course the touching sequence with Marcello's father (Annibale Ninchi), a traveling salesman who joins Marcello on a tour of the night. In a club they see a sad-faced clown (Poidor) lead a lonely balloon out of the room with his trumpet. And Marcello's father, filled with the courage of champagne, grows bold with a young woman who owes Marcello a favor -- only to fall ill and leave, gray and ashen, again at dawn. The movie is made with boundless energy. Fellini stood here at the dividing point between the neorealism of his earlier films (like "La Strada") and the carnival visuals of his extravagant later ones ("Juliet of the Spirits," "Amarcord"). His autobiographical "8 1/2," made three years after "La Dolce Vita," is a companion-piece, but more knowing: There the hero is already a filmmaker, but here he is a young newspaperman on the make. The music by Nino Rota is of a perfect piece with the material. It is sometimes quasi-liturgical, sometimes jazz, sometimes rock; lurking beneath is the irreverence of tuba and accordions, and snatches of pop songs ("Stormy Weather" and even "Jingle Bells"). The characters are forever in motion, and Rota gives them music for their processions and parades. The casting is all typecasting. Anita Ekberg might not have been much of an actress, but she was the only person who could play herself. Lex Barker, a onetime movie Tarzan, was droll as her alcoholic boyfriend. Alain Cuny's severe self-confidence as Steiner is convincing, which is why his end is a shock. And remember Anouk Aimee, her dark glasses concealing a black eye; the practical, commonsensical Adriana Moneta as the streetwalker; Alan Dijon as the satanic ringleader at the nightclub; and always Mastroianni, his eyes squinting against a headache or a deeper ache of the soul. He was always a passive actor, and here that quality is needed: Seeking happiness but unable to take the steps to find it, he spends his nights in endless aimless searching, trying to please everyone, the juggler with more balls than skills. Movies do not change, but their viewers do. When I saw "La Dolce Vita" in 1960, I was an adolescent for whom "the sweet life" represented everything I dreamed of: sin, exotic European glamour, the weary romance of the cynical newspaperman. When I saw it again, around 1970, I was living in a version of Marcello's world; Chicago's North Avenue was not the Via Veneto, but at 3 a.m. the denizens were just as colorful, and I was about Marcello's age. When I saw the movie around 1980, Marcello was the same age, but I was 10 years older, had stopped drinking, and saw him not as a role model but as a victim, condemned to an endless search for happiness that could never be found, not that way. By 1991, when I analyzed the film a frame at a time at the University of Colorado, Marcello seemed younger still, and while I had once admired and then criticized him, now I pitied and loved him. And when I saw the movie right after Mastroianni died, I thought that Fellini and Marcello had taken a moment of discovery and made it immortal. There may be no such thing as the sweet life. But it is necessary to find that out for yourself. La Dolce Vita: No 23 best arthouse film of all time Federico Fellini, 1960 Steve Rose Wed 20 Oct 2010 11.32 BSTFirst published on Wed 20 Oct 2010 11.32 BST View more sharing options Shares 25  Marcello Mastroianna and Anita Ekberg in La Dolce Vita (1960). Photograph: Ronald Grant Archive Previously associated with neo realist tales of poverty and hardship, Federico Fellini's career, and Italy's public image, took a sudden shift here. It was time to replace those associations of bombed-out, postwar landscapes with hip, thriving modern culture in all its glory and squalor. Always a master of the grand tableau, Fellini captures Rome in staggering breadth, from the opening aerial shots of the city, the narrow streets, prostitutes' bedrooms through to aristocratic homes and around the historic landmarks on the back of a Vespa. He's like a tireless, voluble tour guide; you're never quite sure where he's going but you're compelled to follow. His protagonist, Marcello Rubini (Marcello Mastroianni), is also led along for much of the picture, a journalist on the trail of the next story or in thrall to the new idols of the age, such as the Hollywood starlet Sylvia (Anita Ekberg), after whom he wades into the Trevi fountain in the film's most famous scene. Rubini is the epitome of continental suaveness, but he's a conflicted soul, prey to the city's tensions – between tradition and modernity, morality and hedonism, fantasy and reality. It's easy to forget how fresh and bold this all was at the time, and how the film was condemned by the Catholic church and Italian patriots, among many others.La Dolce Vita FILM BY FELLINI [1960] WRITTEN BY: Lee Pfeiffer See Article History La Dolce Vita, (Italian: “The Sweet Life”) Italian film, released in 1960, that was widely hailed as one of the most important ever made and the first of several acclaimed collaborations between director Federico Fellini and actor Marcello Mastroianni, who came to represent the director’s alter ego. Marcello Mastroianni and Anita Ekberg in La dolce vita (1960), directed by Federico Fellini. Riama Film and Pathé Consortium Cinéma; photograph from a private collection In La Dolce Vita, Mastroianni portrayed a disillusioned journalist and gossip writer, ashamed of the shallowness of his profession but too weak to remove himself from the nightly temptations it offers: booze, easy women, and exotic fun. Rife with irony and surreal imagery whose meaning may only have been known to the director himself, the film is a compelling indictment of the decadence of modern life, mass consumerism, and what passes for high culture. The film’s opening scene—a helicopter flying a statue of Christ to Rome is juxtaposed with a shot of a bevy of bikini-clad women—is but one of many that mix the sacred with the shallow. Such sequences caused controversy and led some countries—and the Vatican—to condemn or outright ban the film. The sets are strange and exotic, the costumes are elaborate, and many of the movie’s scenes now rank among the most famous in film history, such as one showing the blonde, zaftig Anita Ekberg frolicking in the Trevi Fountain. La Dolce Vita is credited with contributing the word paparazzi to the English language (it derives from the name of the photographer in the film, Paparazzo) and adding the adjective “Felliniesque,” referring in part to the director’s embrace of the surreal, to the movie critic’s lexicon. Federico Fellini OMRI Born 20 January 1920 Rimini, Italy Died 31 October 1993 (aged 73) Rome, Italy Occupation Filmmaker Years active 1945–1992 Notable work La Strada (1954) Nights of Cabiria (1957) La Dolce Vita (1960) 8½ (1963) Amarcord (1973) Spouse(s) Giulietta Masina (m. 1943) Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (Italian: [fedeˈriːko felˈliːni]; 20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness, he is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time.[1][2][3] His films have ranked, in polls such as Cahiers du cinéma and Sight & Sound, as some of the greatest films of all time. Sight & Sound lists his 1963 film 8½ as the 10th-greatest film of all time. In a career spanning almost fifty years, Fellini won the Palme d'Or for La Dolce Vita, was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, and directed four motion pictures that won Oscars in the category of Best Foreign Language Film. In 1993, he was awarded an honorary Oscar for Lifetime Achievement at the 65th Annual Academy Awards in Los Angeles.[4] Besides La Dolce Vita and 8½, his other well-known films include La Strada, Nights of Cabiria, Juliet of the Spirits, Satyricon, Amarcord and Fellini's Casanova. Contents  [hide]  1 Early life and education 1.1 Rimini (1920–1938) 1.2 Rome (1939) 2 Career and later life 2.1 Early screenplays (1940–1943) 2.2 Neorealist apprenticeship (1944–1949) 2.3 Early films (1950–1953) 2.4 Beyond neorealism (1954–1960) 2.5 Art films and dreams (1961–1969) 2.6 Nostalgia, sexuality, and politics (1970–1980) 2.7 Late films and projects (1981–1990) 2.8 Final years (1991–1993) 3 Death 4 Religious views 5 Political views 6 Influence and legacy 7 Award and Nominations 7.1 Academy Awards 7.2 Selected awards and nominations 7.3 Distinctions 8 Filmography 8.1 As writer and director 8.2 Screenplay contributions 8.3 Television commercials 9 Documentaries on Fellini 10 See also 11 References 11.1 Notes 11.2 Bibliography 12 Further reading 13 External links Early life and education[edit] Rimini (1920–1938)[edit] Fellini was born on 20 January 1920, to middle-class parents in Rimini, then a small town on the Adriatic Sea. His father, Urbano Fellini (1894–1956), born to a family of Romagnol peasants and small landholders from Gambettola, moved to Rome in 1915 as a baker apprenticed to the Pantanella pasta factory. His mother, Ida Barbiani (1896–1984), came from a bourgeiois Catholic family of Roman merchants. Despite her family's vehement disapproval, she had eloped with Urbano in 1917 to live at his parents' home in Gambettola.[5] A civil marriage followed in 1918 with the religious ceremony held at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome a year later. The couple settled in Rimini where Urbano became a traveling salesman and wholesale vendor. Fellini had two siblings: Riccardo (1921–1991), a documentary director for RAI Television, and Maria Maddalena (m. Fabbri; 1929–2002). In 1924, Fellini started primary school in an institute run by the nuns of San Vincenzo in Rimini, attending the Carlo Tonni public school two years later. An attentive student, he spent his leisure time drawing, staging puppet shows, and reading Il corriere dei piccoli, the popular children’s magazine that reproduced traditional American cartoons by Winsor McCay, George McManus and Frederick Burr Opper. (Opper’s Happy Hooligan would provide the visual inspiration for Gelsomina in Fellini's 1954 film La Strada; McCay’s Little Nemo would directly influence his 1980 film City of Women.)[6] In 1926, he discovered the world of Grand Guignol, the circus with Pierino the Clown, and the movies. Guido Brignone’s Maciste all’Inferno (1926), the first film he saw, would mark him in ways linked to Dante and the cinema throughout his entire career.[7] Enrolled at the Ginnasio Giulio Cesare in 1929, he made friends with Luigi ‘Titta’ Benzi, later a prominent Rimini lawyer (and the model for young Titta in Amarcord(1973)). In Mussolini’s Italy, Fellini and Riccardo became members of the Avanguardista, the compulsory Fascist youth group for males. He visited Rome with his parents for the first time in 1933, the year of the maiden voyage of the transatlantic ocean liner SS Rex (which is shown in Amarcord). The sea creature found on the beach at the end of La Dolce Vita (1960) has its basis in a giant fish marooned on a Rimini beach during a storm in 1934. Although Fellini adapted key events from his childhood and adolescence in films such as I Vitelloni (1953), 8½ (1963), and Amarcord (1973), he insisted that such autobiographical memories were inventions: It is not memory that dominates my films. To say that my films are autobiographical is an overly facile liquidation, a hasty classification. It seems to me that I have invented almost everything: childhood, character, nostalgias, dreams, memories, for the pleasure of being able to recount them.[8] In 1937, Fellini opened Febo, a portrait shop in Rimini, with the painter Demos Bonini. His first humorous article appeared in the "Postcards to Our Readers" section of Milan’s Domenica del Corriere. Deciding on a career as a caricaturist and gag writer, Fellini travelled to Florence in 1938, where he published his first cartoon in the weekly 420. According to a biographer, Fellini found school "exasperating"[9] and, in one year, had 67 absences.[10] Failing his military culture exam, he graduated from high school in July 1938 after doubling the exam. Rome (1939)[edit] In September 1939, he enrolled in law school at the University of Rome to please his parents. Biographer Hollis Alpert reports that "there is no record of his ever having attended a class".[11] Installed in a family pensione, he met another lifelong friend, the painter Rinaldo Geleng. Desperately poor, they unsuccessfully joined forces to draw sketches of restaurant and café patrons. Fellini eventually found work as a cub reporter on the dailies Il Piccolo and Il Popolo di Roma, but quit after a short stint, bored by the local court news assignments. Four months after publishing his first article in Marc’Aurelio, the highly influential biweekly humour magazine, he joined the editorial board, achieving success with a regular column titled But Are You Listening?[12] Described as “the determining moment in Fellini’s life”,[13] the magazine gave him steady employment between 1939 and 1942, when he interacted with writers, gagmen, and scriptwriters. These encounters eventually led to opportunities in show business and cinema. Among his collaborators on the magazine’s editorial board were the future director Ettore Scola, Marxist theorist and scriptwriter Cesare Zavattini, and Bernardino Zapponi, a future Fellini screenwriter. Conducting interviews for CineMagazzino also proved congenial: when asked to interview Aldo Fabrizi, Italy’s most popular variety performer, he established such immediate personal rapport with the man that they collaborated professionally. Specializing in humorous monologues, Fabrizi commissioned material from his young protégé.[14] Career and later life[edit] Early screenplays (1940–1943)[edit] Federico Fellini during the 1950s Retained on business in Rimini, Urbano sent wife and family to Rome in 1940 to share an apartment with his son. Fellini and Ruggero Maccari, also on the staff of Marc’Aurelio, began writing radio sketches and gags for films. Not yet twenty and with Fabrizi’s help, Fellini obtained his first screen credit as a comedy writer on Mario Mattoli’s Il pirata sono io (The Pirate's Dream). Progressing rapidly to numerous collaborations on films at Cinecittà, his circle of professional acquaintances widened to include novelist Vitaliano Brancati and scriptwriter Piero Tellini. In the wake of Mussolini’s declaration of war against France and England on 10 June 1940, Fellini discovered Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, Gogol, John Steinbeck and William Faulkner along with French films by Marcel Carné, René Clair, and Julien Duvivier.[15] In 1941 he published Il mio amico Pasqualino, a 74-page booklet in ten chapters describing the absurd adventures of Pasqualino, an alter ego.[16] Writing for radio while attempting to avoid the draft, Fellini met his future wife Giulietta Masina in a studio office at the Italian public radio broadcaster EIAR in the autumn of 1942. Well-paid as the voice of Pallina in Fellini's radio serial, Cico and Pallina, Masina was also well known for her musical-comedy broadcasts which cheered an audience depressed by the war.[17] In November 1942, Fellini was sent to Libya, occupied by Fascist Italy, to work on the screenplay of I cavalieri del deserto (Knights of the Desert, 1942), directed by Osvaldo Valenti and Gino Talamo. Fellini welcomed the assignment as it allowed him "to secure another extension on his draft order".[18] Responsible for emergency re-writing, he also directed the film's first scenes. When Tripoli fell under siege by British forces, he and his colleagues made a narrow escape by boarding a German military plane flying to Sicily. His African adventure, later published in Marc’Aurelio as "The First Flight", marked “the emergence of a new Fellini, no longer just a screenwriter, working and sketching at his desk, but a filmmaker out in the field”.[19] The apolitical Fellini was finally freed of the draft when an Allied air raid over Bologna destroyed his medical records. Fellini and Giulietta hid in her aunt’s apartment until Mussolini's fall on 25 July 1943. After dating for nine months, the couple were married on 30 October 1943. Several months later, Masina fell down the stairs and suffered a miscarriage. She gave birth to a son, Pierfederico, on 22 March 1945, but the child died of encephalitis a month later on 24 April 1945.[20] The tragedy had enduring emotional and artistic repercussions.[21] Neorealist apprenticeship (1944–1949)[edit] After the Allied liberation of Rome on 4 June 1944, Fellini and Enrico De Seta opened the Funny Face Shop where they survived the postwar recession drawing caricatures of American soldiers. He became involved with Italian Neorealism when Roberto Rossellini, at work on Stories of Yesteryear (later Rome, Open City), met Fellini in his shop, and proposed he contribute gags and dialogue for the script. Aware of Fellini’s reputation as Aldo Fabrizi’s “creative muse”,[22] Rossellini also requested that he try to convince the actor to play the role of Father Giuseppe Morosini, the parish priest executed by the SS on 4 April 1944. In 1947, Fellini and Sergio Amidei received an Oscar nomination for the screenplay of Rome, Open City. Working as both screenwriter and assistant director on Rossellini’s Paisà (Paisan) in 1946, Fellini was entrusted to film the Sicilian scenes in Maiori. In February 1948, he was introduced to Marcello Mastroianni, then a young theatre actor appearing in a play with Giulietta Masina.[23] Establishing a close working relationship with Alberto Lattuada, Fellini co-wrote the director’s Senza pietà (Without Pity) and Il mulino del Po (The Mill on the Po). Fellini also worked with Rossellini on the anthology film L'Amore (1948), co-writing the screenplay and in one segment titled, "The Miracle", acting opposite Anna Magnani. To play the role of a vagabond rogue mistaken by Magnani for a saint, Fellini had to bleach his black hair blond. Early films (1950–1953)[edit] Fellini, Masina, Carla del Poggio and Alberto Lattuada, 1952 In 1950 Fellini co-produced and co-directed with Alberto Lattuada Variety Lights (Luci del varietà), his first feature film. A backstage comedy set among the world of small-time travelling performers, it featured Giulietta Masina and Lattuada’s wife, Carla del Poggio. Its release to poor reviews and limited distribution proved disastrous for all concerned. The production company went bankrupt, leaving both Fellini and Lattuada with debts to pay for over a decade.[24] In February 1950, Paisàreceived an Oscar nomination for the screenplay by Rossellini, Sergio Amidei, and Fellini. After travelling to Paris for a script conference with Rossellini on Europa '51, Fellini began production on The White Sheik in September 1951, his first solo-directed feature. Starring Alberto Sordi in the title role, the film is a revised version of a treatment first written by Michelangelo Antonioni in 1949 and based on the fotoromanzi, the photographed cartoon strip romances popular in Italy at the time. Producer Carlo Ponti commissioned Fellini and Tullio Pinelli to write the script but Antonioni rejected the story they developed. With Ennio Flaiano, they re-worked the material into a light-hearted satire about newlywed couple Ivan and Wanda Cavalli (Leopoldo Trieste, Brunella Bovo) in Rome to visit the Pope. Ivan’s prissy mask of respectability is soon demolished by his wife’s obsession with the White Sheik. Highlighting the music of Nino Rota, the film was selected at Cannes (among the films in competition was Orson Welles’s Othello) and then retracted. Screened at the 13th Venice International Film Festival, it was razzed by critics in "the atmosphere of a soccer match”.[25] One reviewer declared that Fellini had “not the slightest aptitude for cinema direction". In 1953, I Vitelloni found favour with the critics and public. Winning the Silver Lion Award in Venice, it secured Fellini his first international distributor. Beyond neorealism (1954–1960)[edit] Cinecittà - Teatro 5, Fellini's favorite studio[26] Fellini directed La Strada based on a script completed in 1952 with Pinelli and Flaiano. During the last three weeks of shooting, Fellini experienced the first signs of severe clinical depression.[27] Aided by his wife, he undertook a brief period of therapy with Freudian psychoanalyst Emilio Servadio.[27] Fellini cast American actor Broderick Crawford to interpret the role of an aging swindler in Il Bidone. Based partly on stories told to him by a petty thief during production of La Strada, Fellini developed the script into a con man’s slow descent towards a solitary death. To incarnate the role’s "intense, tragic face", Fellini’s first choice had been Humphrey Bogart[28] but after learning of the actor’s lung cancer, chose Crawford after seeing his face on the theatrical poster of All the King’s Men (1949). The film shoot was wrought with difficulties stemming from Crawford’s alcoholism.[29] Savaged by critics at the 16th Venice International Film Festival, the film did miserable box office and did not receive international distribution until 1964. During the autumn, Fellini researched and developed a treatment based on a film adaptation of Mario Tobino’s novel, The Free Women of Magliano. Located in a mental institution for women, financial backers considered the subject had no potential and the project was abandoned.[citation needed] While preparing Nights of Cabiria in spring 1956, Fellini learned of his father’s death by cardiac arrest at the age of sixty-two. Produced by Dino De Laurentiis and starring Giulietta Masina, the film took its inspiration from news reports of a woman’s severed head retrieved in a lake and stories by Wanda, a shantytown prostitute Fellini met on the set of Il Bidone.[30] Pier Paolo Pasolini was hired to translate Flaiano and Pinelli’s dialogue into Roman dialect and to supervise researches in the vice-afflicted suburbs of Rome. The movie won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film at the 30th Academy Awards and brought Masina the Best Actress Award at Cannes for her performance.[citation needed] With Pinelli, he developed Journey with Anita for Sophia Loren and Gregory Peck. An "invention born out of intimate truth", the script was based on Fellini's return to Rimini with a mistress to attend his father's funeral.[31] Due to Loren’s unavailability, the project was shelved and resurrected twenty-five years later as Lovers and Liars (1981), a comedy directed by Mario Monicelli with Goldie Hawn and Giancarlo Giannini. For Eduardo De Filippo, he co-wrote the script of Fortunella, tailoring the lead role to accommodate Masina’s particular sensibility.[citation needed] The Hollywood on the Tiber phenomenon of 1958 in which American studios profited from the cheap studio labour available in Rome provided the backdrop for photojournalists to steal shots of celebrities on the via Veneto.[32] The scandal provoked by Turkish dancer Haish Nana’s improvised striptease at a nightclub captured Fellini’s imagination: he decided to end his latest script-in-progress, Moraldo in the City, with an all-night "orgy" at a seaside villa. Pierluigi Praturlon’s photos of Anita Ekberg wading fully dressed in the Trevi Fountain provided further inspiration for Fellini and his scriptwriters.[citation needed] Changing the title of the screenplay to La Dolce Vita, Fellini soon clashed with his producer on casting: the director insisted on the relatively unknown Mastroianni while De Laurentiis wanted Paul Newman as a hedge on his investment. Reaching an impasse, De Laurentiis sold the rights to publishing mogul Angelo Rizzoli. Shooting began on 16 March 1959 with Anita Ekberg climbing the stairs to the cupola of Saint Peter’s in a mammoth décor constructed at Cinecittà. The statue of Christ flown by helicopter over Rome to Saint Peter's Square was inspired by an actual media event on 1 May 1956, which Fellini had witnessed. The film wrapped August 15 on a deserted beach at Passo Oscuro with a bloated mutant fish designed by Piero Gherardi.[citation needed] La Dolce Vita broke all box office records. Despite scalpers selling tickets at 1000 lire,[33] crowds queued in line for hours to see an “immoral movie” before the censors banned it. At an exclusive Milan screening on 5 February 1960, one outraged patron spat on Fellini while others hurled insults. Denounced in parliament by right-wing conservatives, undersecretary Domenico Magrì of the Christian Democrats demanded tolerance for the film’s controversial themes.[34] The Vatican's official press organ, l'Osservatore Romano, lobbied for censorship while the Board of Roman Parish Priests and the Genealogical Board of Italian Nobility attacked the film. In one documented instance involving favourable reviews written by the Jesuits of San Fedele, defending La Dolce Vita had severe consequences.[35] In competition at Cannes alongside Antonioni’s L’Avventura, the film won the Palme d'Or awarded by presiding juror Georges Simenon. The Belgian writer was promptly “hissed at” by the disapproving festival crowd.[36] Art films and dreams (1961–1969)[edit] Federico Fellini A major discovery for Fellini after his Italian neorealism period (1950–1959) was the work of Carl Jung. After meeting Jungian psychoanalyst Dr. Ernst Bernhard in early 1960, he read Jung's autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1963). Bernhard also recommended that Fellini consult the I Ching and keep a record of his dreams. What Fellini formerly accepted as "his extrasensory perceptions"[37] were now interpreted as psychic manifestations of the unconscious. Bernhard’s focus on Jungian depth psychology proved to be the single greatest influence on Fellini’s mature style and marked the turning point in his work from neorealism to filmmaking that was "primarily oneiric".[38] As a consequence, Jung's seminal ideas on the anima and the animus, the role of archetypes and the collective unconscious directly influenced such films as 8½ (1963), Juliet of the Spirits (1965), Fellini Satyricon (1969), Casanova (1976), and City of Women (1980).[39] Other key influences on his work include Luis Buñuel,[40] Charlie Chaplin,[41] Sergei Eisenstein,[42] Buster Keaton,[43] Laurel and Hardy,[43] the Marx Brothers,[43]and Roberto Rossellini.[44] Exploiting La Dolce Vita’s success, financier Angelo Rizzoli set up Federiz in 1960, an independent film company, for Fellini and production manager Clemente Fracassi to discover and produce new talent. Despite the best intentions, their overcautious editorial and business skills forced the company to close down soon after cancelling Pasolini’s project, Accattone (1961).[45] Condemned as a "public sinner"[46] for La Dolce Vita, Fellini responded with The Temptations of Doctor Antonio, a segment in the omnibus Boccaccio '70. His second colour film, it was the sole project green-lighted at Federiz. Infused with the surrealistic satire that characterized the young Fellini’s work at Marc’Aurelio, the film ridiculed a crusader against vice, interpreted by Peppino De Filippo, who goes insane trying to censor a billboard of Anita Ekbergespousing the virtues of milk.[citation needed] In an October 1960 letter to his colleague Brunello Rondi, Fellini first outlined his film ideas about a man suffering creative block: "Well then - a guy (a writer? any kind of professional man? a theatrical producer?) has to interrupt the usual rhythm of his life for two weeks because of a not-too-serious disease. It’s a warning bell: something is blocking up his system."[47] Unclear about the script, its title, and his protagonist’s profession, he scouted locations throughout Italy “looking for the film”[48]in the hope of resolving his confusion. Flaiano suggested La bella confusione (literally The Beautiful Confusion) as the movie’s title. Under pressure from his producers, Fellini finally settled on 8½, a self-referential title referring principally (but not exclusively)[49] to the number of films he had directed up to that time. Giving the order to start production in spring 1962, Fellini signed deals with his producer Rizzoli, fixed dates, had sets constructed, cast Mastroianni, Anouk Aimée, and Sandra Milo in lead roles, and did screen tests at the Scalera Studios in Rome. He hired cinematographer Gianni Di Venanzo, among key personnel. But apart from naming his hero Guido Anselmi, he still couldn't decide what his character did for a living.[50] The crisis came to a head in April when, sitting in his Cinecittà office, he began a letter to Rizzoli confessing he had "lost his film" and had to abandon the project. Interrupted by the chief machinist requesting he celebrate the launch of 8½, Fellini put aside the letter and went on the set. Raising a toast to the crew, he "felt overwhelmed by shame… I was in a no exit situation. I was a director who wanted to make a film he no longer remembers. And lo and behold, at that very moment everything fell into place. I got straight to the heart of the film. I would narrate everything that had been happening to me. I would make a film telling the story of a director who no longer knows what film he wanted to make".[51] Shooting began on 9 May 1962. Perplexed by the seemingly chaotic, incessant improvisation on the set, Deena Boyer, the director’s American press officer at the time, asked for a rationale. Fellini told her that he hoped to convey the three levels "on which our minds live: the past, the present, and the conditional - the realm of fantasy".[52] After shooting wrapped on 14 October, Nino Rota composed various circus marches and fanfares that would later become signature tunes of the maestro’s cinema.[53] Nominated for four Oscars, 8½ won awards for best foreign language film and best costume design in black-and-white. In California for the ceremony, Fellini toured Disneyland with Walt Disney the day after. Increasingly attracted to parapsychology, Fellini met the Turin magician Gustavo Rol in 1963. Rol, a former banker, introduced him to the world of Spiritism and séances. In 1964, Fellini took LSD[54] under the supervision of Emilio Servadio, his psychoanalyst during the 1954 production of La Strada.[55] For years reserved about what actually occurred that Sunday afternoon, he admitted in 1992 that objects and their functions no longer had any significance. All I perceived was perception itself, the hell of forms and figures devoid of human emotion and detached from the reality of my unreal environment. I was an instrument in a virtual world that constantly renewed its own meaningless image in a living world that was itself perceived outside of nature. And since the appearance of things was no longer definitive but limitless, this paradisiacal awareness freed me from the reality external to my self. The fire and the rose, as it were, became one.[56] Fellini's hallucinatory insights were given full flower in his first colour feature Juliet of the Spirits (1965), depicting Giulietta Masina as Juliet, a housewife who rightly suspects her husband's infidelity and succumbs to the voices of spirits summoned during a séance at her home. Her sexually voracious next door neighbor Suzy (Sandra Milo) introduces Juliet to a world of uninhibited sensuality but Juliet is haunted by childhood memories of her Catholic guilt and a teenaged friend who committed suicide. Complex and filled with psychological symbolism, the film is set to a jaunty score by Nino Rota. Nostalgia, sexuality, and politics (1970–1980)[edit] Fellini & Bruno Zanin on the set of Amarcord in 1973 To help promote Satyricon in the United States, Fellini flew to Los Angeles in January 1970 for interviews with Dick Cavett and David Frost. He also met with film director Paul Mazursky who wanted to star him alongside Donald Sutherland in his new film, Alex in Wonderland.[57] In February, Fellini scouted locations in Paris for The Clowns, a docufiction both for cinema and television, based on his childhood memories of the circus and a "coherent theory of clowning."[58] As he saw it, the clown "was always the caricature of a well-established, ordered, peaceful society. But today all is temporary, disordered, grotesque. Who can still laugh at clowns?... All the world plays a clown now."[59] In March 1971, Fellini began production on Roma, a seemingly random collection of episodes informed by the director's memories and impressions of Rome. The "diverse sequences," writes Fellini scholar Peter Bondanella, "are held together only by the fact that they all ultimately originate from the director’s fertile imagination."[60] The film’s opening scene anticipates Amarcord while its most surreal sequence involves an ecclesiastical fashion show in which nuns and priests roller skate past shipwrecks of cobwebbed skeletons. Over a period of six months between January and June 1973, Fellini shot the Oscar-winning Amarcord. Loosely based on the director’s 1968 autobiographical essay My Rimini,[61] the film depicts the adolescent Titta and his friends working out their sexual frustrations against the religious and Fascist backdrop of a provincial town in Italy during the 1930s. Produced by Franco Cristaldi, the seriocomic movie became Fellini’s second biggest commercial success after La Dolce Vita.[62] Circular in form, Amarcord avoids plot and linear narrative in a way similar to The Clowns and Roma.[63] The director's overriding concern with developing a poetic form of cinema was first outlined in a 1965 interview he gave to The New Yorker journalist Lillian Ross: "I am trying to free my work from certain constrictions – a story with a beginning, a development, an ending. It should be more like a poem with metre and cadence."[64] Late films and projects (1981–1990)[edit] Italian President Sandro Pertinireceiving a David di Donatello Award from Fellini in 1985 Organized by his publisher Diogenes Verlag in 1982, the first major exhibition of 63 drawings by Fellini was held in Paris, Brussels, and the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York.[65] A gifted caricaturist, much of the inspiration for his sketches was derived from his own dreams while the films-in-progress both originated from and stimulated drawings for characters, decor, costumes and set designs. Under the title, I disegni di Fellini (Fellini’s Designs), he published 350 drawings executed in pencil, watercolours, and felt pens.[66] On 6 September 1985 Fellini was awarded the Golden Lion for lifetime achievement at the 42nd Venice Film Festival. That same year, he became the first non-American to receive the Film Society of Lincoln Center’s annual award for cinematic achievement.[citation needed] Long fascinated by Carlos Castaneda’s The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, Fellini accompanied the Peruvian author on a journey to the Yucatán to assess the feasibility of a film. After first meeting Castaneda in Rome in October 1984, Fellini drafted a treatment with Pinelli titled Viaggio a Tulun. Producer Alberto Grimaldi, prepared to buy film rights to all of Castaneda’s work, then paid for pre-production research taking Fellini and his entourage from Rome to Los Angeles and the jungles of Mexico in October 1985.[67] When Castaneda inexplicably disappeared and the project fell through, Fellini’s mystico-shamanic adventures were scripted with Pinelli and serialized in Corriere della Sera in May 1986. A barely veiled satirical interpretation of Castaneda's work,[68] Viaggio a Tulun was published in 1989 as a graphic novel with artwork by Milo Manara and as Trip to Tulum in America in 1990. For Intervista, produced by Ibrahim Moussa and RAI Television, Fellini intercut memories of the first time he visited Cinecittà in 1939 with present-day footage of himself at work on a screen adaptation of Franz Kafka’s Amerika. A meditation on the nature of memory and film production, it won the special 40th Anniversary Prize at Cannes and the 15th Moscow International Film Festival Golden Prize. In Brussels later that year, a panel of thirty professionals from eighteen European countries named Fellini the world’s best director and 8½ the best European film of all time.[69] In early 1989 Fellini began production on The Voice of the Moon, based on Ermanno Cavazzoni’s novel, Il poema dei lunatici (The Lunatics' Poem). A small town was built at Empire Studios on the via Pontina outside Rome. Starring Roberto Benigni as Ivo Salvini, a madcap poetic figure newly released from a mental institution, the character is a combination of La Strada's Gelsomina, Pinocchio, and Italian poet Giacomo Leopardi.[70] Fellini improvised as he filmed, using as a guide a rough treatment written with Pinelli.[71] Despite its modest critical and commercial success in Italy, and its warm reception by French critics, it failed to interest North American distributors.[citation needed] Fellini won the Praemium Imperiale, the equivalent of the Nobel Prize in the visual arts, awarded by the Japan Art Association in 1990.[72] Final years (1991–1993)[edit] In July 1991 and April 1992, Fellini worked in close collaboration with Canadian filmmaker Damian Pettigrew to establish "the longest and most detailed conversations ever recorded on film".[73] Described as the "Maestro's spiritual testament” by his biographer Tullio Kezich,[74] excerpts culled from the conversations later served as the basis of their feature documentary, Fellini: I'm a Born Liar (2002) and the book, I'm a Born Liar: A Fellini Lexicon. Finding it increasingly difficult to secure financing for feature films, Fellini developed a suite of television projects whose titles reflect their subjects: Attore, Napoli, L’Inferno, L'opera lirica, and L’America.[citation needed] In April 1993 Fellini received his fifth Oscar, for lifetime achievement, "in recognition of his cinematic accomplishments that have thrilled and entertained audiences worldwide". On 16 June, he entered the Cantonal Hospital in Zurich for an angioplasty on his femoral artery[75] but suffered a stroke at the Grand Hotel in Rimini two months later. Partially paralyzed, he was first transferred to Ferrara for rehabilitation and then to the Policlinico Umberto I in Rome to be near his wife, also hospitalized. He suffered a second stroke and fell into an irreversible coma.[76] Death[edit] Fellini died in Rome on 31 October 1993 at the age of 73 after a heart attack he suffered a few weeks earlier,[77] a day after his fiftieth wedding anniversary. The memorial service was held in Studio 5 at Cinecittà attended by an estimated 70,000 people.[78] At the request of Giulietta Masina, trumpeter Mauro Maur played the "Improvviso dell'Angelo" by Nino Rota during the funeral ceremony.[79] Five months later, on 23 March 1994, Fellini's widow, actress Giulietta Masina died of lung cancer. Fellini, Masina and their son, Pierfederico, are buried in a bronze sepulchre sculpted by Arnaldo Pomodoro. Designed as a ship's prow, the tomb is located at the main entrance to the Cemetery of Rimini. The Federico Fellini Airport in Rimini is named in his honour.[citation needed] Religious views[edit] Fellini was raised in a Roman Catholic family, and considered himself a Catholic, although, as an adult, he avoided formal activity in the Catholic Church. Films by Fellini included Catholic themes: some celebrated Catholic teachings; whereas others were critical or ridiculed church dogma.[80] Political views[edit] While Fellini was for the most part indifferent to politics,[81] he had a general dislike of authoritarian institutions, and is interpreted by Bondanella as believing in "the dignity and even the nobility of the individual human being".[82] In a 1966 interview, he stated, "I make it a point to see if certain ideologies or political attitudes threaten the private freedom of the individual. But for the rest, I am not prepared nor do I plan to become interested in politics."[83] Despite various famous Italian actors favouring the Communists, Fellini was not left-wing as it is rumored that he supported Christian Democracy (DC).[84] Although Bondanella reports that the Christian Democratic party "was far too aligned with an extremely conservative and even reactionary pre-Vatican II church to suit Fellini's tastes."[82] The director still opposed the '68 Movement, and befriended Giulio Andreotti.[85] Apart from satirizing Silvio Berlusconi and mainstream television in Ginger and Fred,[86] Fellini rarely expressed his political views in public and never directed an overtly political film. He directed two electoral television spots during the 1990s: one for DC and another for the Italian Republican Party or PRI.[87] His slogan, "Non si interrompe un'emozione" (Don't interrupt an emotion), was directed against the excessive use of advertisements in TV. The slogan was also used by the Democratic Party of the Left in the referendums of 1995.[citation needed] Influence and legacy[edit] Dedicatory plaque to Fellini on Via Veneto, Rome: To Federico Fellini, who made Via Veneto the stage for the "Sweet Life" - SPQR - January 20, 1995 Personal and highly idiosyncratic visions of society, Fellini's films are a unique combination of memory, dreams, fantasy and desire. The adjectives "Fellinian" and "Felliniesque" are "synonymous with any kind of extravagant, fanciful, even baroque image in the cinema and in art in general".[6] La Dolce Vita contributed the term paparazzi to the English language, derived from Paparazzo, the photographer friend of journalist Marcello Rubini (Marcello Mastroianni).[88] Contemporary filmmakers such as Tim Burton,[89] Terry Gilliam,[90] Emir Kusturica,[91] and David Lynch,[92] have cited Fellini's influence on their work. Polish director Wojciech Has, whose two best-received films, The Saragossa Manuscript (1965) and The Hour-Glass Sanatorium (1973), are examples of modernist fantasies, has been compared to Fellini for the sheer "luxuriance of his images".[93] I Vitelloni inspired European directors Juan Antonio Bardem, Marco Ferreri, and Lina Wertmüller and had an influence on Martin Scorsese's Mean Streets (1973), George Lucas's American Graffiti (1974), Joel Schumacher's St. Elmo's Fire (1985), and Barry Levinson's Diner (1987), among many others.[94] When the American magazine Cinema asked Stanley Kubrick in 1963 to name his favorite films, the film director listed I Vitelloni as number one in his Top 10 list.[95] Nights of Cabiria was adapted as the Broadway musical Sweet Charity and the movie Sweet Charity (1969) by Bob Fosse starring Shirley MacLaine. City of Womenwas adapted for the Berlin stage by Frank Castorf in 1992.[citation needed] 8½ inspired among others: Mickey One (Arthur Penn, 1965), Alex in Wonderland (Paul Mazursky, 1970), Beware of a Holy Whore (Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 1971), Day for Night (François Truffaut, 1973), All That Jazz (Bob Fosse, 1979), Stardust Memories (Woody Allen, 1980), Sogni d'oro (Nanni Moretti, 1981), Parad Planet(Vadim Abdrashitov, 1984), La Pelicula del rey (Carlos Sorin, 1986), Living in Oblivion (Tom DiCillo, 1995), 8½ Women (Peter Greenaway, 1999), Falling Down (Joel Schumacher, 1993), along with the successful Broadway musical, Nine (Maury Yeston and Arthur Kopit, 1982).[96] Yo-Yo Boing! (1998), a Spanish novel by Puerto Rican writer Giannina Braschi, features a dream sequence with Fellini that was inspired by 8½.[97] Fellini’s work is referenced on the albums Fellini Days (2001) by Fish, Another Side of Bob Dylan (1964) by Bob Dylan with Motorpsycho Nitemare, Funplex (2008) by the B-52's with the song Juliet of the Spirits, and in the opening traffic jam of the music video Everybody Hurts by R.E.M.[98] American singer Lana Del Rey has cited Fellini as an influence.[99] It influenced two American TV shows, Northern Exposure and Third Rock from the Sun.[100] Wes Anderson's short film Castello Cavalcanti(2013) is in many places a direct homage to Fellini's work.[101] Various film related material and personal papers of Fellini are contained in the Wesleyan University Cinema Archives to which scholars and media experts from around the world may have full access.[102] In October 2009, the Jeu de Paume in Paris opened an exhibit devoted to Fellini that included ephemera, television interviews, behind-the-scenes photographs, Book of Dreams (based on 30 years of the director's illustrated dreams and notes), along with excerpts from La dolce vita and 8½.[103] In 2014, the Blue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps of Concord, California performed a show themed around Fellini's works, entitled "Felliniesque", with which the Blue Devils won a record 16th Drum Corps International World Class championship with a record score of 99.650.[104] That same year, the weekly entertainment-trade magazine Variety announced that French director Sylvain Chomet was moving forward with the project, The Thousand Miles, based on various works of Fellini including his unpublished drawings and writings.[105] Award and Nominations[edit] Academy Awards[edit] Year Film Category Result 1946 Rome, Open City Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Sergio Amidei 1949 Paisan Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with V. Hayes, Sergio Amidei, Marcello Pagliero, and Roberto Rossellini 1956 La strada Best Foreign Language Film Won 1956 La strada Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Tullio Pinelli 1957 Nights of Cabiria Best Foreign Language Film Won 1957 I Vitelloni Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Ennio Flaiano and Tullio Pinelli 1961 La Dolce Vita Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Ennio Flaiano, Tullio Pinelli and Brunello Rondi 1963 8½ Best Foreign Language Film Won 1963 8½ Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Ennio Flaiano, Tullio Pinelli and Brunello Rondi 1974 Amarcord Best Foreign Language Film Won 1974 Amarcord Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Tonino Guerra 1976 Fellini's Casanova Best Adapted Screenplay Nominated Shared with Bernardino Zapponi 1992 Himself Academy Honorary Award Won Selected awards and nominations[edit] Rome, Open City (Dir. Roberto Rossellini, 1945) Oscar nomination for Best Screenplay (with Sergio Amidei) Paisà (Dir. Roberto Rossellini, 1946) Oscar nomination for Best Screenplay (with Sergio Amidei, Alfred Hayes, Marcello Pagliero, and Rossellini) I Vitelloni (1953) Venice Film Festival Silver Lion Oscar nomination for Best Screenplay (with Tullio Pinelli, Ennio Flaiano) La Strada (1954) Venice Film Festival Silver Lion Oscar for the Best Foreign Language Film[106] Oscar nomination for Best Screenplay (with Tullio Pinelli, Ennio Flaiano) New York Film Critics Award for Best Foreign Film Screen Directors Guild Award for Best Foreign Film Nights of Cabiria (1957) Festival de Cannes Best Actress Award (Giulietta Masina)[107] Oscar for the Best Foreign Language Film[108] La Dolce Vita (1960) Palme d'Or at Festival de Cannes Oscar Best Costumes in B&W (Piero Gherardi) Oscar nominations for Best Director, Best Screenplay (with Tullio Pinelli, Ennio Flaiano, Brunello Rondi), Best Art and Set Direction New York Film Critics Award for Best Foreign Language Film National Board of Review citation for Best Foreign Language Film 8½ (Otto e Mezzo, 1963) Moscow International Film Festival Grand Prize[109] Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film[110] Oscar for Best Costumes in B&W (Piero Gherardi) Oscar nomination for Best Director Oscar nomination for Best Art Direction-Set Decoration in B&W (Piero Gherardi) Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists Silver Ribbons for Best Cinematography in B&W (Gianni Di Venanzo), Best Director (Federico Fellini), Best Original Story (Fellini and Flaiano), Best Producer (Angelo Rizzoli), Best Score (Nino Rota), Best Screenplay (Fellini, Pinelli, Flaiano, Rondi), and Best Supporting Actress (Sandra Milo) Berlin International Film Festival Special Award BAFTA Film Award nomination for Best Film from any Source Bodil Award for Best European Film Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures New York Film Critics Award for Best Foreign Film National Board of Review Award for Best Foreign Language Picture Grolla d’Oro at Saint Vincent Film Festival for Best Director Kinema Junpo Award for Best Foreign Language Film & Best Foreign Language Film Director Juliet of the Spirits (1965) New York Film Critics Award for Best Foreign Film National Board of Review Award for Best Foreign Language Story Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film Fellini Satyricon (1969) Oscar nomination for Best Director[111] I clowns (1970) National Board of Review citation for Best Foreign Language Film Amarcord (1974) Oscar for Best Foreign Film[112] Oscar nomination for Best Director Oscar nomination for Best Writing, Original Screenplay New York Film Critics Award for Best Direction New York Film Critics Award for Best Motion Picture Fellini's Casanova (1976) Oscar for Best Costumes (Danilo Donati) Intervista (1987) 15th Moscow International Film Festival Golden Prize[113] Festival de Cannes Special 40th Anniversary Prize The Voice of the Moon (1990) David di Donatello Awards for Best Actor, Best Production Design, and Best Editing Distinctions[edit] 1964 Grande Ufficiale OMRI[114] 1974 27th Cannes Film Festival Lifetime Achievement Award (with French director René Clair) 1985 42nd Venice Film Festival Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement Film Society of Lincoln Center Award for Cinematic Achievement 1987 Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI[115] 1989 Lifetime Achievement Award - European Film Awards 1990 Japan Art Association's Praemium Imperiale (equivalent of the Nobel Prize in the visual arts) 1993 Oscar for Lifetime Achievement Filmography[edit] As writer and director[edit] Luci del varietà (1950) (co-credited with Alberto Lattuada) Lo sceicco bianco (1952) I vitelloni (1953) L'amore in città (1953) (segment Un'agenzia matrimoniale) La strada (1954) Il bidone (1955) Le notti di Cabiria (1957) La Dolce Vita (1960) Boccaccio '70 (1962) (segment Le tentazioni del Dottor Antonio) 8½ (1963) Giulietta degli spiriti (1965) Histoires extraordinaires (1968) (segment Toby Dammit, based on Edgar Allan Poe's short story "Never Bet the Devil Your Head") Fellini: A Director's Notebook (1969) Fellini Satyricon (1969) I clowns (1970) Roma (1972) Amarcord (1973) Il Casanova di Federico Fellini (1976) Prova d'orchestra (1978) La città delle donne (1980) E la nave va (1983) Ginger e Fred (1986) Intervista (1987) La voce della luna (1990) Screenplay contributions[edit] Knights of the Desert (1942) Before the Postman (1942) The Peddler and the Lady (1943) L'ultima carrozzella (1943) (dir. Mario Mattoli) Co-scriptwriter Roma, città aperta (1945) (dir. Roberto Rossellini) Co-scriptwriter Paisà (1946) (dir. Roberto Rossellini). Co-scriptwriter Black Eagle (1946) (dir. Riccardo Freda) Co-scriptwriter Il delitto di Giovanni Episcopo (1947) (dir. Alberto Lattuada) Co-scriptwriter Senza pietà (1948) (dir. Alberto Lattuada) Co-scriptwriter Il miracolo (1948) (dir. Roberto Rossellini) Co-scriptwriter Il mulino del Po (1949) (dir. Alberto Lattuada) Co-scriptwriter Francesco, giullare di Dio (1950) (dir. Roberto Rossellini) Co-scriptwriter Il Cammino della speranza (1950) (dir. Pietro Germi) Co-scriptwriter La città si difende (1951) (dir. Pietro Germi) Co-scriptwriter Persiane chiuse (1951) (dir. Luigi Comencini) Co-scriptwriter Il brigante di Tacca del Lupo (1952) (dir. Pietro Germi) Co-scriptwriter Fortunella (1979) (dir. Eduardo De Filippo) Co-scriptwriter Lovers and Liars (1979) (dir. Mario Monicelli) Fellini not credited Television commercials[edit] TV commercial for Campari Soda (1984) TV commercial for Barilla pasta (1984) Three TV commercials for Banca di Roma (1992) Documentaries on Fellini[edit] Ciao Federico (1969). Dir. Gideon Bachmann. (60') Federico Fellini - un autoritratto ritrovato (2000). Dir. Paquito Del Bosco. (RAI TV, 68') Fellini: I'm a Born Liar (2002). Dir. Damian Pettigrew. Feature documentary. (ARTE, Eurimages, Scottish Screen, 102') How Strange to Be Named Federico (2013). Dir. Ettore Scola. Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni, Knight Grand Cross (Italian pronunciation: [marˈtʃɛllo mastroˈjanni]; 28 September 1924 – 19 December 1996) was an Italian film actor. His prominent films include: La Dolce Vita; 8½; La Notte; Divorce Italian Style; Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow; Marriage Italian Style; The 10th Victim; A Special Day; City of Women; Henry IV; Dark Eyes; and Stanno tutti bene. His honours included British Film Academy Awards, Best Actor awards at the Cannes Film Festival and two Golden Globe Awards. Contents  [hide]  1 Early life 2 Career 3 Personal life 4 Death 5 Awards and recognition 6 Filmography and awards 7 References 8 External links Early life[edit] Mastroianni was born in Fontana Liri, a small village in the Apennines in the province of Frosinone, Lazio, and grew up in Turin and Rome. He was the son of Ida (née Irolle) and Ottone Mastroianni, who ran a carpentry shop,[1] and the nephew of sculptor Umberto Mastroianni. During World War II, after the division into Axis and Allied Italy, he was interned in a loosely guarded German prison camp, from which he escaped to hide in Venice. His brother Ruggero Mastroianni was a film editor who edited a number of his brother's films, and appeared alongside Marcello in Scipione detto anche l'Africano, a spoof of the once popular sword and sandal (peplum) film genre released in 1971. Career[edit] Mastroianni made his screen debut as an uncredited extra in Marionette (1939) when he was fourteen, and made intermittent minor film appearances until landing his first big role in Atto d'accusa (1951). Within a decade he became a major international celebrity, starring in Big Deal on Madonna Street (1958); and in Federico Fellini's La Dolce Vitaopposite Anita Ekberg in 1960, where he played a disillusioned and self-loathing tabloid columnist who spends his days and nights exploring Rome's high society. Mastroianni followed La Dolce Vita with another signature role, that of a film director who, amidst self-doubt and troubled love affairs, finds himself in a creative block while making a movie in Fellini's 8½ (1963). His other prominent films include Days of Love (1954) with Marina Vlady; La Notte (1961) with Jeanne Moreau; Too Bad She's Bad (1954), Lucky to Be a Woman (1956), Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (1963), Marriage Italian-Style (1964), Sunflower (1970), The Priest's Wife (1971), A Special Day (1977) and Robert Altman's Ready to Wear (1994) – all co-starring Sophia Loren; Luchino Visconti's White Nights (1957); Pietro Germi's Divorce, Italian Style (1961); Family Diary(1962) with Jacques Perrin; A Very Private Affair (1962) with Brigitte Bardot; Mario Monicelli's Casanova 70 (1965); Diamonds for Breakfast (1968) with Rita Tushingham; The Pizza Triangle (1970) with Monica Vitti; Massacre in Rome(1973) with Richard Burton; The Sunday Woman (1975) with Jacqueline Bisset; Stay As You Are (1978) with Nastassja Kinski; Fellini's City of Women (1980) and Ginger and Fred (1986); Marco Bellocchio's Henry IV (1984); Macaroni (1985) with Jack Lemmon; Nikita Mikhalkov's Dark Eyes (1987) with Marthe Keller; Giuseppe Tornatore's Everybody's Fine(1990); Used People (1992) with Shirley MacLaine; and Agnès Varda's One Hundred and One Nights (1995). He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor three times: for Divorce Italian Style, A Special Day and Dark Eyes. Mastroianni, Dean Stockwell and Jack Lemmon are the only actors to have been twice awarded the Best Actor at the Cannes Film Festival. Mastroianni won it in 1970 for The Pizza Triangle and in 1987 for Dark Eyes. Mastroianni starred alongside his daughter, Chiara Mastroianni, in Raúl Ruiz's Three Lives and Only One Death in 1996. For this performance he won the Silver Wave Award at the Ft. Lauderdale International Film Festival. His final film, Voyage to the Beginning of the World (1997), was released posthumously. Personal life[edit] Mastroianni married Flora Carabella (1926–1999) on August 12, 1950.[2] They had one daughter together, Barbara (born 1952), but eventually separated because of his affairs with younger women.[2] Mastroianni's first serious relationship after the separation was with Faye Dunaway, his co-star in A Place for Lovers (1968). Dunaway wanted to marry and have children, but Mastroianni, a Catholic, refused to divorce Carabella.[2] In 1971, after three years of waiting for Mastroianni to change his mind, Dunaway left him.[2] Mastroianni had a daughter, Chiara Mastroianni, with French actress Catherine Deneuve, who was nearly 20 years his junior and lived with him for four years in the 1970s. During that time, the couple made four movies together: It Only Happens to Others (1971), La cagna (1972), A Slightly Pregnant Man (1973) and Don't Touch the White Woman!(1974). According to People magazine, Mastroianni's other lovers included actresses Anouk Aimee, Ursula Andress, Claudia Cardinale and Lauren Hutton.[2] Around 1976, he became involved with Anna Maria Tatò, an author and filmmaker. They remained together until his death.[2] Death[edit] Mastroianni died of pancreatic cancer on 19 December 1996 at the age of 72.[3][4] Both of his daughters, as well as Deneuve and Tatò, were at his bedside.[2] The Trevi Fountain in Rome, associated with his role in Fellini's La Dolce Vita, was symbolically turned off and draped in black as a tribute.[4][5] At the 1997 Venice Film Festival, Chiara, Carabella and Deneuve tried to block the screening of Tatò's four-hour documentary, Marcello Mastroianni: I Remember.[6]The festival refused and the movie was shown.[6] The three women reportedly tried to do the same thing at Cannes.[6] Tatò said Mastroianni had willed her all rights to his image.[6] Awards and recognition[edit] 1962 – winner, Golden Globe Award for Best Actor[7] 1962 – nomination, Academy Award for Best Actor (Divorzio all'italiana)[8] 1963 – winner, British Film Academy Award for Best Foreign Actor (Divorzio all'italiana)[7] 1964 – winner, British Film Academy Award for Favourite Male in World Film and for Best Foreign Actor (Ieri, oggi, domani)[7] 1970 – winner, Cannes Film Festival award for Best Actor (Dramma della gelosia – tutti i particolari in cronaca)[7] 1977 – nomination, Academy Award for Best Actor (A Special Day)[8] 1987 – winner, Cannes Film Festival award for Best Actor (Dark Eyes)[7] 1987 – nomination, Academy Award for Best Actor (Dark Eyes)[8] 1989 – winner, Venice Film Festival Best Actor (Che ora è?)[7] 1993 – recipient, Honorary César[7] 1997 – recipient, David di Donatello Prize, Career Achievement[7] Filmography and awards[edit] Year Title Role Notes 1939 Marionette Extra Uncredited 1942 Una storia d'amore Extra 1944 I bambini ci guardano Extra Uncredited 1948 I Miserabili Un Rivoluzionario Uncredited 1949 Vertigine d'amore Vent'anni 1950 Domenica d'agosto Ercole Nardi Contro la legge Marcello Curti Cuori sul mare Massimo Falchetti Vita da cani Carlo Danesi 1951 Atto d'accusa Renato La Torre Passaporto per l'oriente Aldo Mazzetti Parigi è sempre Parigi Marcello Venturi 1952 Le ragazze di Piazza di Spagna Marcello Sartori L'eterna catena Walter Ronchi Tragico ritorno Marco Sensualità Carlo Santori Penne nere Pietro Cossuti Gli eroi della domenica Carlo Vagnetti La muta di Portici Extra Uncredited 1953 Lulù Soletti Il viale della speranza Mario Febbre di vivere Daniele Non è mai troppo tardi Riccardo La valigia dei sogni 1954 Cronache di poveri amanti Ugo Tempi nostri Il marito di Maria (segment "Pupo, Il") Schiava del peccato Giulio Franchi Giorni d'amore Pasquale Droppio Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Casa Ricordi Gaetano Donizetti La principessa delle Canarie Don Diego 1955 Peccato che sia una canaglia Paolo Grolla d'Oro for Best Actor Tam tam mayumbe Alessandrini La bella mugnaia Luca 1956 La fortuna di essere donna Corrado Betti Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor The Bigamist Mario De Santis 1957 Padri e figli Cesare La ragazza della salina Piero Il momento più bello Pietro Valeri Le notti bianche Mario Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Il medico e lo stregone Dr. Francesco Marchetti 1958 Un ettaro di cielo Severino Balestra I soliti ignoti Tiberio Racconti d'estate Marcello Mazzoni Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Amore e guai Franco 1959 La Loi Enrico Tosso Il nemico di mia moglie Marco Tornabuoni Everyone's in Love Giovanni Ferdinando I, re di Napoli Gennarino 1960 La Dolce Vita Marcello Rubini Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Il bell'Antonio Antonio Magnano Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Adua and Friends Piero Salvagni 1961 La notte Giovanni Pontano L'assassino Alfredo Martelli Fantasmi a Roma Reginaldo Divorzio all'italiana Ferdinando (Fefè) Cefalù Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor 1962 Vita privata Fabio Rinaldi Cronaca familiare Enrico Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor 1963 8½ Guido Anselmi Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor I compagni Prof. Sinigaglia Ieri, oggi, domani Carmine Sbaratti BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role David di Donatello for Best Actor 1964 Matrimonio all'italiana Domenico Soriano David di Donatello for Best Actor Golden Globe Henrietta Award – World Film Favorite Actor Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor 1965 Casanova 70 Maggiore Colombetti San Sebastian International Film FestivalBest Actor La decima vittima Marcello Poletti Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Oggi, domani e dopodomani Mario / Michele episodes (segments L'uomo dei cinque palloni, L'ora di punta and La moglie biond) Break Up Mario 1966 Io, io, io... e gli altri Peppino Marassi Nominated – Golden Globe Henrietta Award – World Film Favorite Actor The Poppy Is Also a Flower Inspector Mosca Shoot Loud, Louder... I Don't Understand Alberto Saporito 1967 Lo straniero Arthur Meursault Questi fantasmi The Ghost Uncredited 1968 Diamonds for Breakfast Grand Duke Nikolay Vladimirovich Godunov Amanti Valerio 1970 The Pizza Triangle Oreste Nardi Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actor Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor I girasoli Antonio Leo the Last Leo Giochi particolari Sandro The Priest's Wife Don Mario 1971 Scipio the African Scipione l'Africano Ça n'arrive qu'aux autres Marcello Permette? Rocco Papaleo Rocco Papaleo 1972 Correva l'anno di grazia 1870 Augusto Parenti La cagna Giorgio What? Alex 1973 Mordi e fuggi Giulio Borsi La Grande Bouffe Marcello Niente di grave: suo marito è incinto Marco Mazetti Rappresaglia Father Pietro Antonelli L'idolo della città Nicolas Montei 1974 Touche pas à la femme blanche George A. Custer Allonsanfàn Fulvio Imbriani 1975 La pupa del gangster Charlie Colletto Per le antiche scale Professor Bonaccorsi Divina creatura Michele Barra La donna della domenica Commissioner Salvatore Santamaria Globo d'Oro Award for Best Actor]] 1976 Todo modo Don Gaetano Goodnight, Ladies and Gentlemen Paolo T. Fiume Lunatics and Lovers Marchese Luca Maria 1977 Una giornata particolare Gabriele Globo d'Oro Award for Best Actor Grolla d'oro for Best Actor Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Drama Mogliamante Luigi De Angelis Doppio delitto Bruno Baldassarre 1978 Ciao maschio Luigi Nocello Così come sei Giulio Marengo Blood Feud Rosario Maria Spallone 1979 L'ingorgo – Una storia impossibile Marco Montefoschi Giallo napoletano Raffaele Capece 1980 La terrazza Luigi La città delle donne Snàporaz 1981 Fantasma d'amore Nino Monti La pelle Curzio Malaparte 1982 La Nuit de Varennes Casanova, Chevalier de Seingalt Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Oltre la porta Enrico Sommi The Last Horror Film Himself Uncredited 1983 Storia di Piera Lorenzo Sant Jordi Award for Best Performance in a Foreign Film Gabriela, Cravo e Canela Nacib Il generale dell'armata morta General Ariosto 1984 Enrico IV Enrico IV Globo d'Oro Award for Best Actor 1985 Le due vite di Mattia Pascal Mattia Pascal Maccheroni Antonio Jasiello Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Big Deal After 20 Years 1986 Ginger e Fred Pippo Botticella (Fred) David di Donatello for Best Actor Globo d'Oro Award for Best Actor Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Sant Jordi Award for Best Performance in a Foreign Film O Melissokomos Spyros 1987 Oci ciornie Romano Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actor David di Donatello for Best Actor Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor Intervista Himself 1988 Miss Arizona Rozsnyai Sándor 1989 Splendor Jordan Che ora è? Marcello Venice Film Festival – Volpi Cup Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor 1990 Stanno tutti bene Matteo Scuro Verso sera Prof. Bruschi Globo d'Oro Award for Best Actor Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Honorary Golden Lion 1991 To meteoro vima tou pelargou Missing Politician Le voleur d'enfants Bigua A Fine Romance Cesareo Grimaldi 1992 Used People Joe Meledandri Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy 1993 Di questo non si parla Ludovico D'Andrea Un, deux, trois, soleil Constantin Laspada, le père Venice Film Festival – Volpi Cup for Best Actor in a Supporting Role 1994 Prêt-à-Porter Sergei (Sergio) National Board of Review Award for Best Acting by an Ensemble The True Life of Antonio H. Himself 1995 Les cent et une nuits de Simon Cinéma L'ami italien / The Italian Friend Sostiene Pereira Pereira David di Donatello for Best Actor Nominated – Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor Al di là delle nuvole The Man of All Vices 1996 Trois vies et une seule mort Mateo Strano / Georges Vickers / Butler / Luc Allamand Silver Wave 1997 Viagem ao Princípio do Mundo Manoel (Final film appearance), released posthumously

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